Yes, with some stipulations.
In my interpretation, the argument for being able to launch the meteors is much, much stronger than against. Really the only contingent is that the meteor weigh in between 1 and 5 times the spell level in pounds. Let's break it down.
"You create six tiny meteors in your space."
Despite this being an evocation spell, it says the meteors are created. Not manifestations of energy that appear physical, physical meteors.
"When you cast the spell—and as a bonus action on each of your turns thereafter—you can expend one or two of the meteors, sending them streaking toward a point or points you choose within 120 feet of you."
The important factor here is that the language is that you can do something, and that it is not contingent on a specific method for incurring its effect. Let's take, for instance, Magic Stone, a similar spell.
"You or someone else can make a ranged spell attack with one of the pebbles by throwing it or hurling it with a sling. If thrown, a pebble has a range of 60 feet. If someone else attacks with a pebble, that attacker adds your spellcasting ability modifier, not the attacker’s, to the attack roll. On a hit, the target takes bludgeoning damage equal to 1d6 + your spellcasting ability modifier."
It gives you the function of how to use the Magic Stone. It says you can attack with it like a normal ranged weapon, but stipulates that on a hit the target takes damage. Being on a hit is understood to require an attack roll, so a saving throw triggered by Catapult wouldn't cause the Magic Stone to incur its own damage even if the pebbles were 1-5* pounds because it requires an attack roll, because it's a failed save, not on a hit.
"Once a meteor reaches its destination or impacts against a solid surface, the meteor explodes."
It doesn't specify how the meteor impacts, only that it travels into something in a way that can be construed as an "impact" on a solid surface, which Catapult would definitely cause. Notice that it doesn't say that the impact is what causes the damage, only that the impact causes the meteor to explode.
"Each creature within 5 feet of the point where the meteor explodes must make a Dexterity saving throw."
So now you have the tertiary effect down this chain of events. You create meteors. If they impact something, it explodes.
"A creature takes 2d6 fire damage on a failed save, or half as much damage on a successful one."
Then the damage is done by the explosion, not the meteor, whose usefulness as an object is done away with upon impact. The meteor is ultimately unimportant to the desired effect of the spell, it only summons the damaging effect.
So essentially, the meteor is akin to a regular magical object whose only stipulation is that it impacts something for its effect to trigger.
Now let's look at Catapult.
"Choose one object weighing 1 to 5 pounds within range that isn’t being worn or carried."
Since Minute Meteors are not carried, they "swirl around you" implying a certain level of detachment (like if fish were "swimming around you"--they're not carried) and because the spell does not specify a nonmagical object like the way Magic Stone or Animate Objects does, they satisfy every condition to be targeted by the Catapult spell. The rest of the spell doesn't care about what kind of object it is, only that the object could be targeted to begin with.
So yes, if a Minute Meteor is within 1-5* pounds, you can Catapult it.
The question is, is a Minute Meteor at least one pound? Since they are Tiny, that puts them in the same size category as a cat, which are easily more than one pound. The artwork shows roughly apple-sized meteors, but the spell doesn't stipulate even a rough reference point. If you go by the actual density of meteorites, which are about 3.0 to 3.7 grams per cubic centimeter, a 7cm diameter sphere made of meteorite (about an apple-sized meteorite) would be 0.8 to 0.9lbs, which is pretty close to a pound but just under it. But this is a make-believe game. Let the casters have their meteors.
I see no reason that your DM would kneecap this kind of strategy because it's not even particularly busted, requiring two to seven spell slots to do a maximum average damage of 7+7=14(on a save) to 7+14=21(on fail) per first-level spell slot after the up-front investment of a third-level spell slot to cast Minute Meteors. Its damage output does raise when you consider using a bonus action to hurl two additional meteors, so that might be useful, making it possible to do 7+7+7+7=28(on a save) to 7+7+7+14=35(on a fail) with one catapulted meteor and two hurled, using up both bonus action and action to burn at least one and one 1st level spell slot.
Overall, it's a decent combo, and one probably outshone by others, but a decent combo nonetheless.