It would appear that this is possible.
The rules do support this outright. Per PHB p102 (emphasis mine):
Immediately after you cast a sorcerer spell of 1st level or higher...
And from DMG p141 under "Spells" (emphasis mine):
Some magic items allow the user to cast a spell from the item...
So if the item allows a sorcerer to cast a spell and that spell is on the sorcerer's list then your class feature would apply based on the wording. Also, see this answer.
It seems as though rules designer Jeremy Crawford says this is the intent in this tweet from May 2016 note that JC's Tweets are no longer official rulings.:
Q: when a wild magic sorcerer uses a wand of magic missiles, can he
trigger a Wild Magic Surge?
Keep in mind that a DM is free to ignore this as with anything else. Example: I could easily see a DM stating that your sorcerer's list is the one he knows not to include ones in the PHB under sorcerer that he does not.