I've been out of the loop for a while, and I used to play AD&D 2nd ed, but today I find there are a lot of different versions that have fairly different gameplay.

Can anyone summarize the really big differences, the ones (maybe top three?) that are the 'killer features' of the different editions? What makes each edition play differently than the others?

up vote 132 down vote accepted

OD&D - The original game had only three classes (Cleric, Fighter, Magic User). Cleric spells up to 5th level, Magic user spells up to 6th level. Every attack except for certain monster abilities did 1d6 damage if it hit. There wasn't a lot of difference between characters in terms of combat capabilities. Characteristics didn't have many modifiers.

OD&D plus Greyhawk Supplement - The Greyhawk supplement transformed OD&D into a form of older edition D&D that is recognizable by most gamers today. Characteristics have more modifiers and exceptional strength was introduced. Variable damage dice for different weapons and creatures was introduced. The number of spell levels increased.

Holmes Edition, B/X D&D, Mentzer D&D - Similar to OD&D plus Greyhawk including selected elements from other supplements, with the rules rewritten for clarity and organization. Playing a Race meant playing a class. For example a Dwarf used only the Dwarf Class. Both B/X and Mentzer were divided in distinct books that focused on a specific range of levels. Later the Mentzer version was combined into the Rules Compendium. The biggest difference between these rules and AD&D was found in higher level play. Mentzer D&D had specific rules for running domain, mass combat, and even becoming a immortal i.e. god.

AD&D 1st Edition - OD&D plus Supplements plus Strategic Review articles are combined, rewritten, and organized into a three book set. One of the reason behind this edition was to standardize how D&D was played to make running tournaments easier. The most popular version of older edition D&D. Bonuses for characteristics roughly go up to +4 and are capped at 18 except for exceptional strength.

A lot of extra details are added in Gygax's distinctive writing style. Some sections are poorly designed or understood like the unarmed combat rules, initiative, psionics, human dual classing, etc. While other are widely adopted, classes, races, spells, magic items, etc. Characters select a race and a class. Non-human race can multi class which involves splitting experience between multiple classes. Non-humans were generally limited to a max level (often low).

AD&D 1st Edition plus Unearthed Arcana - This version shifted the power level of the game upwards by allowing increased level limits for non-human, new classes that were slightly more powerful, and weapon specialization for fighters. Later AD&D hardback books (the two Survival books) expanded the use of non-weapon proficiencies as a skill system.

AD&D 2nd Edition - Still basically AD&D 1st Edition but the rules have been reorganized and rewritten for clarity. Some content like half-orc, demons, and assassins were removed or changed due to media pressure. Character customization was expanded by using non-weapon proficiencies as a skill system and by allowing characters to take kits that confer various benefits. Combat has been redesigned to overcome the issues with initiative and unarmed combat that were part of the previous edition of AD&D.

Because of the success of Dragonlance, much of AD&D 2nd Edition run was focused on customizing the rules for specific settings or themes. TSR released a lot of different settings like Dark Sun, Birthright, and others.

AD&D 2nd Edition Skills and Powers - Player's Option: Skill and Powers introduced several rule systems that allowed extensive customization of a character.

D&D 3rd Edition - The first edition created by Wizards of the Coast, 3rd Edition took the idea of Skill and Powers and developed a cleaner system for customizing characters by designing the classes so a level of one class can stack on top of another class. A single level chart was introduced and a each level a character could take a new class or add another level of a class they already had.

In addition feats were added to allow character to further customize their abilities. A true skill system was introduced and integrated into the game. The underlying d20 system worked by rolling equal too or higher than a target number and adding various bonus. This was used across the game in a standard way. Problems developed at higher levels as the number of options increased to the point where players had a tough time resolving their actions.

In addition, when various supplements were combined, characters could be built that were considerably more powerful than other combinations. This version was also noted for releasing the d20 system under the Open Game License, which ignited a vigorous third party market.

D&D 3.5 Edition - This edition featured only small changes to the core game (and was mostly-but-not-entirely compatible with books written for 3rd Edition), but had its own extensive line of supplements which magnified the role of feats, prestige classes, and multiclassing in character customization.

This version of D&D is still the baseline for many D20 games some still in print and active development. Notably the Pathfinder 1st edition game by Paizo is based on the System Reference Document for D&D 3.5.

D&D 4th Edition - This edition is a completely new game with only a few game mechanics carried over from the 3rd Edition. It has a simple set of core rules and defines all character and monster abilities as exceptions which are described in standard terms. Higher level combat has been simplified, and class has been designed to have specific roles in combat. Every classes has a diverse set of combat options to use. The use of a battlegrid and miniatures is part of the core rules. Classes and monster generally have a high fantasy flavor. There are multiple ways to heal centered on a new mechanic called healing surges. Combat takes noticeably longer than any prior edition except perhaps for high level 3rd edition combat. While not present at the game's launch, this edition is noted for popular use of on-line computer tools, particularly an online character builder that integrates content from all the supplements. Wizards of the Coast originally intended to create a "virtual tabletop" as well, but the project was never completed.

D&D Essentials - This was an alternative set of core books for 4th Edition, with simplified classes intended for first-time players. Essentials was designed to be cross-compatible with 4th Edition, with different versions of the classes usable side-by-side.

D&D 5th edition - This is the current edition of D&D. This edition is being released when the market leader is not the previous edition of D&D but rather a rival product made by Paizo called Pathfinder. Unlike D&D 4th edition this edition draws on much of the mechanics introduced in classic D&D (OD&D to AD&D 2nd Edition) and D&D 3rd Edition. It allows for more character customization than classic D&D but less than 3rd edition. The distinct features of D&D 5th edition are flexibility and bounded accuracy.

D&D 5e has a simple core along with several options that allows referee to make their game feel more like a particular past edition. Options include allowing feats (3e), tactical combat (3e & 4e), multi-classing (3e), and backgrounds (2e).

Bounded Accuracy is the most distinct feature of D&D 5e. As stated in this article the d20 rolls to see if the character hits or succeeds in a task have been changed to an absolute scale where the difference between the highest level and the lowest is drastically reduced compared to previous editions. In its place, higher levels characters and creature have more hit points, more options for completing tasks, and increased damage along with more ways of doing damage. An immediate consequence is that the difficulty of the to hit roll or the task is not expected to increase as the character levels.

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    One thing that took me a while to figure out: B/X is the "Basic" and "Expert" set, basically the right column in the wikipedia article between 1977 to 1995. Gygax worked on AD&D 1st edition while Holmes and Metzner worked on their own "fork" of OD&D in parallel. Rules Cyclopedia is basically a combination of previous sets (level 1 to 36) except for the Immortals set. – Michael Stum Feb 3 '15 at 2:49
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    I really do think it should be mentioned that, in order to play OD&D, you need the Chainmail and Outdoor Survival games' rulebooks. Simply getting your hands on the booklets isn't enough to play, because they are incomplete, and read like a combination of secret code and insane ranting. – JAMalcolmson Jul 29 '16 at 16:49
  • @JAMalcolmson That's a curious observation. We didn't have that problem when I first played with the white box set. We just got right to it, even though none of us had AH's Outdoor Survival game. When Greyhawk came, though, the game did change quite a bit (for the better). – KorvinStarmast Feb 15 at 13:53
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    Slight update to the 3.5 entry to reflect the current situation with Pathfinder 2nd edition. – RS Conley May 30 at 16:58

Trying for a "short and sweet" summary here. Wikipedia has a lot of detail on this topic.

OD&D/BD&D (original "white box" D&D, BECMI, Rules Cyclopedia)

  • Fairly simple rules, designed for the GM to fill in all kinds of situations via "rulings" in play.
  • Small sets of classes with little mechanical customization.
  • Gameplay varies, but the general reputation is a "Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser" aesthetic: trying to acquire treasure through cleverness. (Not exclusively so: BECMI has rules for godlike characters, for instance.)
  • Inspiration for a number of "retroclones" and OSR (Old School Renaissance) games.

AD&D (Advanced Dungeons & Dragons, AD&D 2nd Edition; note that these exist concurrently with BD&D)

  • D&D attempts to go a bit broader and deeper, particularly with more rules that address the setting outside the dungeon (they're kind of a patchwork, in my opinion).
  • A variety of character classes (especially if you count class kits).
  • Slow shift towards "high-fantasy" style, with epic quests and powerful characters.
  • Numerous published settings, some of which include their own mechanical add-ons and customizations.

D&D3.x (3rd Edition, 3.5 Edition; Pathfinder and other third-party D20 games)

  • More uniform mechanics compared to its predecessors, with established specific rules for a lot of stuff that OD&D might just leave open to the group, including rules that rely on discrete positioning in combat (i.e. a grid).
  • Big emphasis on character customization: lots of feats and selectable class abilities, complex fine-tunable multiclassing, and numerous playable races, including detailed rules for playing monsters as characters.
  • More focus on explicit balance than its predecessors, e.g. with "wealth by level" guidelines; multiplicity of options still tends to supersede balance, however.
  • High-powered "epic fantasy" feel, particularly at higher levels.
  • Basis of a number of D20 games, some of which resemble D&D3.x closely while others only use the basic resolution mechanic.

D&D4 (4th Edition, Essentials)

  • Big emphasis on tactical choice: the game is designed around grid-based combat with lots of abilities that don't just deal damage but move enemies around, apply conditions, &c.
  • Character customization through a variety of classes and lots of selectable abilities for each class. Classes are designed to fill explicit party roles, and balanced based on a unified resource model.
  • Probably the most focused edition, and the one most willing to kill off "sacred cows" if they conflict with the overall design goals.
  • "Action-fantasy" feel, fairly consistent across all levels.

D&D5 (5th Edition, still being released)

  • Big emphasis on the six ability scores above all else.
  • Has an ethos of rulings not rules, and rule modularity.
  • An increased focus on non-mechanical backgrounds and personalities, and "feel" rather than "legalism."
  • Unique mechanics and concepts include, Bounded Accuracy, Advantage/Disadvantage, Inspiration, and Class Path subclass system.

Part of the initial editions had to do with the fact that Gary Gygax (creator) had studied anthropology so a lot of it ended up boiling down to certain social strata, gritty realism (despite all the magic), and (let's face it) Tolkien derived setting with a rather broad scale of difficulty. 3rd Edition was released as an easy edition to learn, and 4th edition dropped a lot of the pretenses about the game's relation to social skills and became more focused on cinematic style combat. (Most of my gaming group refers to D&D 4e as "Table WoW")

Is there a specific element you want to read/run/whatever?

There's a quote hanging on the internets stating more or less, "1st ed tested players, while 4E tests characters." I would have to agree with that statement. 1st, 2nd, AD&D (and all other permutation in that "generation") relied heavily on player intelligence, even when playing the oft low charisma "Meat Shield/Tank" which is why I said 'gritty realism'. There was no weapon scaling, and even different damages for weapons against different sized targets (such as a five foot blade having more it can cut through on a giant than a man). I found the system only as forgiving as the DM since despite the strong urging to min/max there were still plenty of caps in effect.

Contrariwise, the 3rd, 3.5, and 4th editions (and other permutations in the "modern generation") were more concerned with ease of play and less chart checking. What this led to is/was the tendency that even though the game tried to make a more open forum, and one a lot more forgiving to multi-classing, it lent far too much into the realm of specializing. Starting at roughly level 6 or 7, if you weren't dedicated to a few select things your character could do, you would become lost compared to anything at an equal "challenge rating".

One thing that 4e did that I preferred over 3(.5)e was the ability to later swap out powers, enabling a player to realize that something they selected became irrelevant or maybe just less fun. However, this also enables the exponential power gaps to continue for a character that tries to be balanced.

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    To be fair, the social side of 4e is exactly as in depth as the DM wants to make it. Dismissing it as "table WoW" is unfair to groups who want to do social things. – Brian Ballsun-Stanton Mar 28 '12 at 21:18
  • Please avoid edition wars! However I do think it is fair to say that 4th edition is very much different from the other editions, a kind of D&D Tactics if you are looking for a nickname. – Tobold Mar 16 '17 at 13:51

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