There isn't really an MMORG-style "aggro" or "tank" mechanism in D&D 5E, or indeed in most of D&D. 4E was an outlier, with a lot of focus on tactical combat and positioning. But there are some related abilities.
The first thing I'd do is ask your DM if they will let you use the optional Mark action from the DMG:
This option makes it easier for melee combatants to harry each other with opportunity attacks.
When a creature makes a melee attack, it can also mark its target. Until the end of the attacker’s next turn, any opportunity attack it makes against the marked target has advantage. The opportunity attack doesn’t expend the attacker’s reaction, but the attacker can’t make the attack if anything, such as the incapacitated condition or the shocking grasp spell, is preventing it from taking reactions. The attacker is limited to one opportunity attack per turn.
This will help you keep big melee opponents focused on you.
Second, there's a spell: Compelled Dual. Your target has to make a Wisdom save or else "the creature is drawn to you, compelled by your divine demand". It gets disadvantage if it tries to attack someone else, and has a hard time moving more than 30 feet away from you.
Third, when you get to 7th level, the Oath of Redemption feature Aura of the Guardian is probably for you — you can use your reaction to redirect half of the damage dealt to anyone within ten feet of you to yourself. Or Divine Allegiance from Oath of the Crown — within 5 feet, but all damage.
But, all that said, the real strength of D&D is that it's not limited to a set of fixed actions written in code. I've played Adventurer's League with a guy who has a barbarian clearly with some of these same thoughts in mind, and while the barbarian build helps him absorb damage, he does the "aggro" part by role-playing at at the table: on his turn — or, sometimes when the DM is clearly deciding on targets — he'll taunt the enemies ("pick on someone your own size", "you're too weak to handle me!", etc.) and explicitly state that he's stepping up into harm's way. Usually, unless the DM is running an intelligent adversary with other plans, the DM is completely happy to take the character up on it. Sometimes, they ask for a Charisma or Charisma (Intimidation) check, but most often not even that.
Overall, while there are some build options that support this, the main thing to do is to play your character like a protector.