Not in Pathfinder or 3.5
Neither system has a disadvantage mechanic, so-- while you can be afraid of yourself-- obviously you can't "have disadvantage while you're in line of sight of yourself".
In general, when a source doesn't specify system and refers to 'advantage' or 'disadvantage', especially if it uses 5e's particular esoteric grammar around these terms (e.g. 'have advantage on stealth' v.s. 'have an advantage in stealth'), the system in question is 5th edition D&D.
Yes, you can apply this effect to a character in 5th edition D&D
However, this is not the result of the frightened condition. In order to incur this effect in total we need to grant disadvantage as being frightened does, but we also need an effect that makes a creature flee from a source rather than merely being unable to move closer to it.
A good example of this is the eyebite spell. An eyebite spell cast at a creature wearing an attuned Ring of Spell Turning for which the caster had selected the 'Panicked' option and which the ring-bearer rolled a total of 20 on their save for and which the caster then failed to save against would result in the caster suffering precisely the effects described in your question, though technically they may still have a Bonus Action left to use on their turn or maybe even an Action if they used Cunning Action or Action Surge or something like that.