Both basic and AD&D have rules for characters gaining a +10% bonus on earned experience points if they have high scores in the prime requisite ability of their class. Initially there were also penalties of up to -20% for low scores. From what I can see this is no longer the case for D&D 5e.

When did this rule fall out of favor?

up vote 13 down vote accepted

3rd edition

AD&D 2e includes such an experience benefit, for example as mentioned in the description of the Strength ability score:

A fighter with a score of 16 or more in Strength gains a 10 percent bonus to the experience points he earns.

However, this mechanic was dropped in 3rd edition, which makes no mention of getting a bonus to experience based on attributes, and has not featured in any of the subsequent editions of D&D. 3e also unified character progression based on experience so different classes do not require different amounts of experience to gain levels, a change which has also persisted into later editions.

The 3rd edition of D&D was the first not to include experience point (XP) bonuses for high ability scores in each character class's "prime requisite" ability.

The rule was in the Original D&D "White Box" edition and included XP penalties for lower than average ability scores. The Basic and Expert edition continued these, while the AD&D branch of the game continued only the bonuses, and disallowed class selection for characters with a prime requisite below average (9). Second edition (still called AD&D) did not change this from the first edition of AD&D in that regard.

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