Knowing the location of the corpse of oneself in spacetime, is it somehow possible to set up (e.g. in combination w/ other spells) and cast on it a successful delayed resurrection? Or maybe even a delayed true auto-resurrect without the corpse?
Contingency allows you to delay the effect of a spell
Instead, it takes effect when a trigger that you describe occurs.
Use contingency with either revivify or raise dead as the contingent spell, and describe the trigger as you wish.
Note that the spell only has a duration of 10 days, and ends if you are ever separated from the statue of yourself (the material component).
You can't also use resurrection (level 7) or true resurrection (level 9), because contingency only allows level 5 or less spell to be used as the contingent.
This combination is available earliest on level 16: when you spend 11 levels to wizard to gain contingency and 5 levels to cleric or paladin to gain revivify OR 7 levels to cleric or bard or paladin to gain raise dead.
Glyph of Warding (PHB 245-246)
This 3rd-level wizard spell lets you put down, in essence, a magical mine to go off. You can use its Spell Glyph option to store with it any reviving spell you can cast (revivify, raise dead, resurrection, though those require multiclassing) with the trigger set to 'when a creature touching this glyph dies' or some such.
It costs 200gp along with 1 hour of casting time for the glyph, plus at least 300gp for revivify (more for bigger spells), can be done as early as level 10 (5 in wizard, 5 in cleric or druid), and needs to be placed exactly where the creature will die (but you state this foreknowledge is a given). Unlike contingency, it isn't limited to working on just you.
Clone (PHB p. 222)
This 8th-level wizard spell lets you grow a new body for the target to 'respawn' in when they die. It costs a cubic inch of the target's flesh, along with 2000gp for the reusable tank, 1000gp per grown corpse, and a development period of 120 days, and also isn't limited to just reviving yourself. It also doesn't require multiclassing (though it does require a 15th-level wizard to cast) and doesn't care where the target is when they die.