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The feat War Caster allows you to cast a spell when an enemy provokes an Opportunity Attack from you. The spell must target only the provoking creature, and can only have a casting time of 1 Action.

For the sake of abilities like Sentinel (which causes Opportunity Attacks to reduce a creature's speed to 0), does my spell cast by War Caster still count if it uses an attack?

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No, it's not an opportunity attack

The relevant phrasing in the Sentinel feat (PHB, p. 169-170) is:

When you hit a creature with an opportunity attack, the creature's speed becomes 0 for the rest of the turn.

So the prerequisite for this feature is that you must hit a creature with an opportunity attack.

The relevant phrasing in the War Caster feat (PHB, p. 170) is:

When a hostile creature's movement provokes an opportunity attack from you, you can use your reaction to cast a spell at the creature, rather than making an opportunity attack. The spell must have a casting time of 1 action and must target only that creature.

While the trigger is a situation that provides an opportunity attack, it specifically states that no opportunity attack is made, and you instead us a reaction for the spell casting. Thus, the Sentinel feat is not triggered.

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No it is not.

The details explicitly say 'rather than making an opportunity attack'. However, either an opportunity attack or the players spell would use up the one reaction per turn.

PHB p170

When a hostile creature's movement provokes an opportunity attack from you, you can use your reaction to cast a spell at the creature, rather than making an opportunity attack.

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