Be sure that your players are interested in village-tending
You said that your players previously shrugged off the kingdom-building aspects of a previous campaign in favor of wanting to get on with killing things. That is a totally valid way to play Pathfinder, and forcing players to get out of the "kill things, take their stuff, get better stuff, kill bigger things" loop when they're not into leaving the loop can be incredibly frustrating for player and GM alike.
If your players aren't interested in village-tending, you need to decide which is more important: the village-building campaign you have envisioned or the players; you really can't have both.
Be sure that village-tending is interesting
Put interesting choices before the players - not just "which end of town do I put the tavern on", but choices like which deities have an alter in the starter temple or whether to build a defensive wall or a hospital.
Put interesting NPCs in the village and surrounding areas, some of whom are antagonistic to the party and/or to other NPCs. Let the players decide whether to side with the loggers (more logs = better wall) or the elves who live in the wood (having friendly relations with the elves should grant some boon, even if it's just "peace with the elves").
Don't reduce it to a die roll
If you want players to be invested in something, it can't be as simple as a single die roll. Sure, the dice can play a part, but all of the decisions they've made to this point should affect the outcome (some choices will affect which outcomes are on the table, others will affect the odds of certain outcomes, and, sure, a couple might be red herrings).
Combat's no fun if one player rolls one die to see if they win the combat (most of the time, anyway); it's fun because everyone gets to contribute in some way, and there's tension in whether - and in how well - the party will succeed.
Don't get bogged down
If the village-building isn't the party's favorite part, let an NPC spearhead the process: they can come to the players for advice, but should make some decisions that the players wouldn't like (maybe adventurers have to pay an extra tax on magic items...).
Don't get into the weeds: no one cares whether the levy on imported mead is 1.5% or 1.7%, or whether the chicken that farmer Brown says is his despite being on farmer White's farm is actually his. Let the players quickly find aids who will handle the mundane day-to-day events so that the PCs can handle the big decisions and still go adventuring - after all, that's why the players are coming to the table!
Make the village important
Hint that the goblins over that-a-way are getting sick and tired of the PCs killing them and are massing for a major assault. The decisions that the players have made now have in-game consequences: if the village has a solid defensive posture and good guards, they will be able to hold off the worst of the attack while the PCs deal with the horde outside the wall; if the village is three huts and a Stan Lee cameo as the guard, the village is toast. And, if the village is toast, the magic item shop they were counting to get their next bit of shiny is now a pile of ash.
When the PCs find themselves in other settlements, let the stature of their home village influence how the locals relate to them: if their home village is powerful and prosperous, maybe a merchant will offer them a discount in exchange for a favorable trading partnership, or a minor noble could inquire as to a formal, friendly relationship; if home is three shacks, maybe the merchant openly wonders whether the PCs actually have the coin to purchase their wares.
Don't force it
I started with this, and I'll end with it, too: if your players don't want to tend a village, there is nothing you can do to force them to enjoy it or even engage with it. If your players aren't interested, you need either to drop the village-tending or the players, or nobody is going to have fun. And, at the end of the day, that's what's important: everybody at the table should be having fun.
There is absolutely nothing wrong with wanting to hang out with some friends, roll some dice, and kill some goblins, without thinking about the political implications of choosing this duke's offer over that baron's.