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The PHB and basic rules describe Sleight of Hand checks as follows:

Whenever you attempt an act of legerdemain or manual trickery, such as planting something on someone else or concealing an object on your person, make a Dexterity (Sleight of Hand) check. The DM might also call for a Dexterity (Sleight of Hand) check to determine whether you can lift a coin purse off another person or slip something out of another person's pocket.

Say Bob wants to steal Alice's wallet without her noticing. As a DM, should I call for only a Sleight of Hand check, or also for a Stealth check, to determine whether Bob manages to do it without being noticed?

While the description doesn't mention anything about being furtive while stealing these things, planting implies it is without the person's knowledge. But then again, Perception checks are (always?) pitted against Stealth checks to determine whether someone perceives something else.

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It depends.

The most common way in reality is to do so in plain sight. Often there's a distraction, e.g. a light bump or such used as a misdirection for the theft. This kind of thing is part of the Sleight of Hand skill; that's what it's for.

If your player doesn't want their target to be able to think back to what happened and infer who likely robbed them, then you may ask for an additional Stealth check to determine whether they were seen.

But failing the Stealth check wouldn't fail the theft - though your player may, finding their target looking at them, decide against continuing.

Additionally, if it's a while since the robbery occurred, it might make more sense to have the target do a "memory" check (using a general Intelligence check) to see if they remember the circumstances, though as far as I'm aware there are no rules governing this.

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    \$\begingroup\$ A 'memory' check would likely be most appropriately done as either a History check or an Intelligence check. Additionally, it might be worth adding potential interactions with the Keen Mind feat (re a 'memory' check) \$\endgroup\$ – illustro Nov 23 '18 at 12:02
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    \$\begingroup\$ History is pretty clear in terms of remembering the facts of what happened about something in the past. In addition, Intelligence is described in the PHB as "Intelligence measures mental acuity, accuracy of recall, and the ability to reason.". Certainly though the Perception skill (potentially passive perception) would be applicable for contesting the Stealth check to notice the sneaky person. \$\endgroup\$ – illustro Nov 23 '18 at 12:14
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    \$\begingroup\$ History? Seriously? This may allow you to recall who stole some important relic several years ago, provided the thief is known. It does not allow you to recall events from your own life (unless it's important enough to be tought to other people). At least this is how PHB, p. 177f reads to me: "your ability to recall lore about historical events, legendary people [...]". The History skill is about facts they teach in school(or by other means). \$\endgroup\$ – fabian Nov 23 '18 at 14:40
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    \$\begingroup\$ @Fabian PHB, p.177: An Intelligence Check comes into play when you need to draw on logic, education, memory, or deductive reasoning. PHB, p.178: A Wisdom check might reflect an effort to read body language, understand someone's feelings, notice things about the environment, or care for an injured person. What skill you use from there is up to the player or DM, but that doesn't change the fact that it's an Intelligence check. \$\endgroup\$ – Daniel Zastoupil Nov 23 '18 at 21:26
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    \$\begingroup\$ @DanielZastoupil I do not contest Intelligence being used, but History is the wrong skill. If a skill is appropriate, it would be Investigation. (Either that or you don't get to use a skill.) \$\endgroup\$ – fabian Nov 23 '18 at 21:56

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