While the accepted answer may be correct for Pathfinder, the question is tagged as D&D 3.5e, so I'll answer it for that game. In the case of 3.5e:
Yes, you can.
As seen in this answer, in 3.5e you gain class features AFTER you choose your feats. Now, let us assume that this question's accepted answer is correct. That is:
You're allowed take a feat the same level you gain the prerequisites
only because gaining feats is the last thing you do.
Having this in mind, let's look at some feat examples that have a special interaction with 1st-level characters:
- Tattoo Focus (PGtF): Can only be taken by a level 1 character, but requires you to be "Specialized in a school of magic", which is always a class feature (which are gained after feats). So this feat, as written, could never be taken by any character.
- Twin Sword Style (PGtF): Can only be taken by some races at level 1. If you are a human (one of the races specifically allowed), you would NOT be able to take this feat, because the only way you could gain Martial Weapon Proficiency is via a class feature, which you gain after you select your feats.
- All the [Bloodline] feats have clauses ruling what happens when you take them after first level. However, as written, they cannot be taken at first level at all, because they require spellcasting, which you only get after you select your first-level feats.
As you can see, these feats are either non-functional or weirdly-written with our current assumptions. Now, let us abandon our original assumption that the accepted answer is correct. Instead, we will take the following quote at face value:
A character can gain a feat at the same level at which he or she gains the prerequisite.
That is: effectively, feats only check for their prerequisites at the END of the leveling process, after you have finished choosing all your character options for that level.
Using this reading, the examples mentioned above pose no problem with the rules as written. Thus, as it is a reading that causes less conflicts, it should be preferred.
This reading DOES allow you to take the theoretical X and Y feats mentioned in the question at level 1.
However, it has one other consequence for the Sanctum Spell feat: its requirements are "Any metamagic feat", not "Any other metamagic feat". This means that it is self-qualifying, and since prerequisites are only checked at the end of the leveling process, you can always take this feat, even if you have no other metamagic feat, because you will have at least one metamagic feat (Sanctum Spell) at the end of the leveling process. This is also of consequence to Luck feats, many of which have a prerequisite of "any X luck feats" (where X is a number).