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Spellcasters do not always need to provide the literal materials when casting spells with costless components, that's what pouches and foci are for.

A character can use a component pouch or a spellcasting focus (found in “Equipment”) in place of the components specified for a spell. But if a cost is indicated for a component, a character must have that specific component before he or she can cast the spell.

However, there are a handful of spells that have consumed materials without a cost, such as:

  • Globe of Invulnerability (Glass/crystal bead; consumed)
  • Snare (25ft of rope; consumed)
  • Create Homunculus (Clay, ash, mandrake root; consumed, 1000gp jewel-encrusted dagger)
  • Druid Grove (Mistletoe harvested with golden sickle under full moon light; consumed)

and we have the following blurb:

If a spell states that a material component is consumed by the spell, the caster must provide this component for each casting of the spell.

Can a Spell Focus or Component Pouch substitute components with no listed cost if those materials are consumed by the spell?

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  • \$\begingroup\$ ...but 25 feet of rope does have a cost. Hempen rope is the cheapest rope available, and it sells in quantities of 50 feet, with price listed in the PHB. (Silk is lighter but more expensive, and also sold in lengths of 50 feet.) \$\endgroup\$ – Ben Barden Jan 11 at 21:28
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RAI: They are consumed

Because there are three places that talk about consumables, foci and pouches, and they seem to disagree, we must look to the intent of the game designers. When Asked:

@JeremyECrawford Can Protection From Evil and Good be cast with a component pouch or a focus?

Reference to holy water makes me think no, lack of price makes me think yes, the fact that it's consumed makes me think no again.

Jeremy Crawford replied:

If a spell consumes its material component, you must provide that component every time you cast it. #DnD

And here again, Jeremy Crawford states:

@jackAbrasion A spellcasting focus can't substitute for a component that is consumed.

So, the official answer as Rules as Intended by the designer is that they are consumed, and the pouch doesn't just have an endless supply of these consumables. He did add:

The cost isn't a concern for that spell, only that you have some of the material for the spell to consume. It's a narrative device: sprinkling holy water or the powder.

So, a generous DM can run this the other way, without breaking balance. Items with cost, however, could break balance.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ To whoever down voted this: When downvoting an answer, it is appreciated, if not customary, to inform the author of what you believe is inaccurate or bad about their answer. \$\endgroup\$ – J. A. Streich Jan 10 at 22:46
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    \$\begingroup\$ It wasn't me but it may have been because your title is somewhere ambiguous. Saying "doesn't have endless supply" implies that maybe it could provide the items once but not later. \$\endgroup\$ – linksassin Jan 11 at 3:44
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No, you need to supply the material component.

Consumed components require the material component to be supplied in the same way that components with a value must be supplied.

From the Basic Rules (and PHB, 203)

If a spell states that a material component is consumed by the spell, the caster must provide this component for each casting of the spell.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ So does this mean that component pouch can substitute for it (and resupplied at the town) while focus cannot? \$\endgroup\$ – Vylix Jan 11 at 1:54
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    \$\begingroup\$ @Vylix No, focus and component pouch are equivalent if one can replace it so can the other. Consumed is a specific condition that requires the exact item specified. Neither can replace it. \$\endgroup\$ – linksassin Jan 11 at 3:42
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Yes; a focus can substitute for zero-cost consumed components.

tl;dr Foci and component pouch both have the same function in replacing non-cost material components. Component pouch contains all the non-cost components including consumed ones. So the foci can be used to substitute for non-cost consumed components as well.

Non-cost consumed components are infrequent.

There aren't many spells that specifically call out non-cost components that get consumed. Some examples are magic mouth consuming the honeycomb along with the jade, speak with dead burning incense, and globe of invulnerability shattering a glass bead. The vast majority of spells that consume components specify a cost for all the consumed components.

Apparently conflicting rules from casting a spell

If a spell states that a material component is consumed by the spell, the caster must provide this component for each casting of the spell.

Versus

A character can use a component pouch or a spellcasting focus (found in “Equipment”) in place of the components specified for a spell.

Component Pouch

Found under other adventuring gear states that is has all the components needed to cast your spells. The use of "all" supports that it includes sufficient amounts of consumed non-cost components such that they can be effectively eschewed.

A component pouch is a small, watertight leather belt pouch that has compartments to hold all the material components and other special items you need to cast your spells, except for those components that have a specific cost (as indicated in a spell's description).

Both rules are more specific than the general case.

Specific beats general. In this case, both rules are more specific than then general case of the caster must supply the material components of a spell when casting it. Even if more specific beats specific, it is still not obvious which rules are more specific than the others.

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