Other fine answers have already delved into some of the intricacies of the edition that this writer knows best: the Dungeons & Dragons, Third Edition era that includes the 3.5 revision. As mentioned elsewhere, prestige classes centered on drawing magic include the geometer (Complete Arcane 39–41), runecaster (Player's Guide to Faerûn 69–71), and runesmith (Races of Stone 118–20). I'd add the runescarred berserker (Unapproachable East 31–2) and tattooed monk (Complete Warrior 82–5), both turning the creature itself into a surface on which magic is drawn.
And, with that in mind, a large number of tattoo-related feats are scattered around various Third Edition-era sources if that's a PC's jam—for example, conventional magic tattoos and psionic tattoos (the kind the PC touches and the magic happens) can be created using the feats Tattoo Magic (Races of Faerûn 170) and, more popularly, Scribe Tattoo (Expanded Psionics Handbook 51), respectively. This latter has more support, allowing a player who wants his PC thoroughly sleeved to have his PC scribe an entire psionic tattoo computer on his PC's body using these expanded rules for psionic tattoos that are analyzed here.
In addition to magic and psionic tattoos, a player can instead just pick a for his PC magic item creation feats that involve drawing. Beyond the old standby feat Scribe Scroll (Player's Handbook 99–100), divine casters can make written magic items with the feats Inscribe Rune (PG 40) et al., and any caster can make written magic items with the feats Etch Rune (Dragon #324 26–7) and Etch Schema (Magic of Eberron 47). Undoubtedly, others are available with enough looking.
Add to this magic items like the aforementioned Nolzur's marvelous pigments (Dungeon Master's Guide 263 and more here) (4,000 gp; 0 lbs.) and whatever else can be dug up—like the magic paintings and tapestries here—, and there's plenty of art magic for the magician and nonmagician alike.
However, many of these options—the runewhatever classes, for example, and the nontattoo feats and arguably others besides—, are, essentially, just different ways of employing magical writing rather than actually employing magical drawings. The real Third Edition no-power-without-art! class and style of magic is below.
That said, you may also be interested in the available-as-a-starting-class binder. To contact a vestige—a being beyond space and time and the source of any binder's powers—, a binder uses the supernatural ability soul binding to
draw [the vestige's] unique seal visibly on a surface (generally the ground), making the image at least 5 feet across. Drawing a seal requires the ability to mark a surface and 1 minute of concentration, and the act provokes attacks of opportunity. A seal not used within 1 minute of its drawing loses all potency, and [the binder] must draw a new one to contact the vestige.…
Once the seal is drawn, [the binder] must perform a ritual requiring a full-round action to summon the corresponding vestige. During this time, [the binder] must touch the seal and call out to the vestige using both its name and its title. The ritual fails if [the binder] cannot be heard…. Otherwise, a manifestation of the vestige appears in the seal’s space as soon as [the binder] finish[es] the ritual.… (Tome of Magic 10)
Then the binder cuts a quick deal with the vestige's manifestation: in exchange for a modicum of the vestige's power, the binder agrees to host a portion of the vestige. This deal is useful both ways: for a while the vestige once more experiences reality, and the binder gets superpowers. After 1 day, the vestige leaves the binder, and the binder can use soul binding again, picking and binding one or more different vestiges each day.
But, still, nothing happens if the binder doesn't draw the seal.
More official information about the binder (and art) is online here, here and here, and fans provide an in-depth analysis of the binder's options, strengths, and weaknesses here.
This probably still isn't exactly what you're looking for—this isn't, for instance, any kind of draw-a-box-shoot-a-laser-type drawing magic at all—, but it might serve as inspiration.
Off-track: The Palladium Role-playing Game's diabolist and summoner
This is for folks who want to range a little wider. If only interested in 100%-pure Dungeons & Dragons material, you're going to skip this part; this answer's author totally admits that this is only just barely related to the question at hand. However, let me justify this inclusion with some history: In the early days of Dungeons & Dragons many companies and even individuals published their own distinctly different but often clearly D&D-influenced fantasy role-playing games—for example, the games had classes and races, often had spell lists, sometimes even psionics, different weapons dealing different damage, and so on. These D&D features a modern reader views as commonplace across many RPGs were revolutionary during that era… and extremely influential.
One of these games that was so influenced was The Palladium Role-playing Game (1983), written by Kevin Siembieda and published by his own Palladium Books. The black-cover-red-dragon Palladium Role-playing Game included two new and innovative casters that went beyond the know-a-spell-cast-a-spell-then-wait-until-tomorrow-to-cast-it-again style of magic: the ward specialist diabolist and the circle specialist summoner. Both classes remain today—to this reader, anyway—largely incomprehensible, but both classes' ideas are so interesting and so inspiring, that I couldn't in good conscience not bring them up in regard to any question about drawing magic.
A short 2008 RPGNet thread with more information about diabolists and summoners is here, and a 2013 The RPG Site "Let's Read" thread for the Palladium Role-playing Game is here, this link going to the page discussing diabolists and summoners.