You can't carry it around or throw it in a glass jar
The bead stays in one place for its entire duration
Delayed blast fireball says:
A beam of yellow light flashes from your pointing finger, then condenses to linger at a chosen point within range as a glowing bead for the duration.
The spell tells us that the bead will stay at the given point for the entire duration at the spell. It does not outline any way the bead can be moved except by throwing it.
Remember, the spell targets a point in space and not an object. Targeting a point in space touching the jar doesn't mean the bead will follow the jar.
In the end, putting it in a jar isn't going to give you the ability to move a spell effect that says that it stays put.
You can throw it, but you have to touch it and take the risk
If the glowing bead is touched before the interval has expired, the creature touching it must make a Dexterity saving throw. On a failed save, the spell ends immediately, causing the bead to erupt into flame. On a successful save, the creature can throw the bead up to 40 feet.
Putting it in a glass container will not allow you to dodge the risk that comes with the throwing clause in the spell. To throw it, a creature must touch it which then triggers the possibility that it ignites right there. If it is in a jar, you are not touching it, therefore you cannot throw it.
You can only extend the duration of the spell once
The rules for metamagic say:
You can use only one Metamagic option on a spell when you cast it, unless otherwise noted.
Extend does not provide an exception to this rule, so you can only apply it once to your casting of delayed blast fireball (see this Q&A for more details). That means the duration will be extended to 2 minutes for a hefty 32d6 of damage.