Can the D&D 5e version of the Staff of the Python be used as a weapon? If so, what are its stats?
Yes, and it has the statistics of a quarterstaff.
According to the Magic Item Categories listed in the Dungeon Master's Guide (Chapter 7):
Unless a staff's description says otherwise, a staff can be used as a quarterstaff.
Since the staff of the python doesn't say otherwise, it can be used as a quarterstaff, so it deals 1d6 bludgeoning damage and has the Versatile (d8) property. Since it is a magic item that is a weapon, it counts as a magic weapon for purposes of overcoming damage resistances and immunities.