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I am a new player creating a rogue tiefling which gives me the thaumaturgy cantrip. From my understanding you can't cast spells or cantrips without being something like a wizard.

  1. Can I cast this cantrip?
  2. Is it the same for spells I learn with the race? (Hellish Rebuke and Darkness)
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Yes: Class features are not the same as spell slots

This is a character racial ability, which is independent of any class features. You don't have to choose a spell casting class to use a racial ability. Cantrips are always available to use, but the game needs to relate it to an ability score due to how spells generally work mechanically.

Your Tiefling can be of any class. (Spell caster or not). Any number of racial features that embody spell-like abilities are available regardless of the class a PC has. Other races have similar features, shown here for comparison.

  1. Tiefling: Infernal⁠ Legacy

    You know the Thaumaturgy cantrip. When you reach 3rd level, you can cast the Hellish Rebuke spell as a 2nd-level spell once with this trait and regain the ability to do so when you finish a Long Rest. When you reach 5th level, you can cast the Darkness spell once with this trait and regain the ability to do so when you finish a Long Rest. Charisma is your Spellcasting ability for these Spells. (PHB, p. 43)

  2. Forest Gnome: Natural Illusionist⁠.

    You know the Minor Illusion cantrip. Intelligence is your Spellcasting ability for it. (PHB, p. 37)

  3. Drow: Drow Magic.

    You know the Dancing Lights cantrip. When you reach 3rd level, you can cast the Faerie Fire spell once with this trait and regain the ability to do so when you finish a Long Rest. When you reach 5th level, you can cast the Darkness spell once with this trait and regain the ability to do so when you finish a Long Rest. Charisma is your Spellcasting ability for these Spells.

  4. High Elf: Cantrip.

    You know one cantrip of your choice from the Wizard spell list. Intelligence is your Spellcasting ability for it. (PHB, p. 24)

    None of these racially granted abilities has any class restriction attached to it (gnomes, tieflings, high elves, and drow are more naturally magical than other races). The spells do not require a spell slot, but do require that a long rest be taken between uses (unless they are a cantrip, which is a level zero spell per Chapter 10 of the PHB).

    These racial features are similar to, but different than, benefits like the Dwarven Resilience (resistance to poison and advantage versus poison saving throws, PHB p. 20). They are available regardless of the PC class chosen.

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If you know a cantrip, you can cast it - even if you don't have a Spellcasting class feature

As the basic rules describes cantrips:

A cantrip is a spell that can be cast at will, without using a spell slot and without being prepared in advance. Repeated practice has fixed the spell in the caster's mind and infused the caster with the magic needed to produce the effect over and over. A cantrip's spell level is 0.

The rules don't specify anywhere that you must have levels in a spellcasting class to cast cantrips. You don't need to use or even have spell slots in order to cast a cantrip. If you know a cantrip - no matter how you know it - you can use it at will. There are lots of ways to know cantrips, as many races have knowing a cantrip as one of their basic features, and they can be learned in play by using feats like Magic Initiate.

It is possible to cast levelled spells without the Spellcasting feature if you have another feature that lets you do so

Many racial and class features also allow you to cast "proper" spells without being a spellcasting class and without using spell slots, as the magic rules describe:

Some characters and monsters have special abilities that let them cast spells without using spell slots. For example, a monk who follows the Way of the Four Elements, a warlock who chooses certain eldritch invocations, and a pit fiend from the Nine Hells can all cast spells in such a way.

One such way is to be a Tiefling, as your character is! The Tiefling's Infernal Legacy racial trait:

Infernal Legacy. You know the thaumaturgy cantrip. When you reach 3rd level, you can cast the hellish rebuke spell as a 2nd-level spell once with this trait and regain the ability to do so when you finish a long rest. When you reach 5th level, you can cast the darkness spell once with this trait and regain the ability to do so when you finish a long rest. Charisma is your spellcasting ability for these spells.

As you gain levels, this feature lets you cast the spells hellish rebuke and darkness without needing to have or use spell slots - though with the restriction that you can only do so a limited number of times between rests. What is important to note is that you don't "learn" or "know" these levelled spells - so even if you are a spellcasting class, you can't use spell slots for these spells (unless you have learned them properly from another source).

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  • \$\begingroup\$ I was thinking of adding Magic Initiate feat to my answer, but figured it was beyond the scope of what I was trying to say. Its inclusion in yours fits very well. Nicely done. \$\endgroup\$ – KorvinStarmast Feb 17 at 17:03
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Yes, you can

You only need to have spellcaster class if you want to cast a spell using a spell slot.

Infernal Legacy
You know the thaumaturgy cantrip. When you reach 3rd level, you can cast the hellish rebuke spell as a 2nd-level spell once with this trait and regain the ability to do so when you finish a long rest. When you reach 5th level, you can cast the darkness spell once with this trait and regain the ability to do so when you finish a long rest. Charisma is your spellcasting ability for these spells.

Cantrip can be cast without expending spell slot, so obviously you don't need to have spellcaster class to cast thaumaturgy.

A cantrip is a spell that can be cast at will, without using a spell slot and without being prepared in advance. Repeated practice has fixed the spell in the caster’s mind and infused the caster with the magic needed to produce the effect over and over. PHB, pg. 201

Hellish rebuke and darkness can be cast using Infernal Legacy trait instead using spell slot, so you don't need to have spellcaster class, too! However, if you want to cast both of these without using the trait, you need spell slot to do that, so you need to have spellcaster class.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Might be worth adding that if you want to cast them without using the trait, you also need to know them from a class, since these trait spells aren't added to your spells known. (Unlike the Cantrip) \$\endgroup\$ – Erik Feb 18 at 6:49

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