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I want to know if you can make an attack roll with one stat, but deal the damage with another. As a monk, can you make a melee attack roll using your Strength modifier, but roll damage with your Dexterity modifier?

I was thinking of making a multiclassed monk/barbarian. I was hoping to use Reckless Attack to gain advantage on the attack roll, but that requires attacking using Strength, so I was wondering if I could attack using Strength but use my Dexterity modifier for the damage rolls.

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No

You must use the same ability modifier for damage and attack.

Basic Rules, Damage and Healing

When attacking with a weapon, you add your ability modifier--the same modifier used for the attack roll--to the damage.

Impact of House-ruling this

It makes certain multiclasses more powerful and makes the already-powerful DEX ability score even more powerful.

For example, consider a multiclassed Barbarian/Monk. Allowing the player to use STR for attack and DEX for damage means they can Rage and use Monk features in the same attack. Rather than having to make a choice with consequences, the player can have the best of both features with no consequences.

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