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The Trickery Domain Cleric gets access to Invoke Duplicity at 2nd level, which states:

As an action, you create a perfect illusion of yourself that lasts for 1 minute, or until you lose your concentration (as if you were concentrating on a spell). The illusion appears in an unoccupied space that you can see within 30 feet of you. As a bonus action on your turn, you can move the illusion up to 30 feet to a space you can see, but it must remain within 120 feet of you.

For the duration, you can cast spells as though you were in the illusion's space, but you must use your own senses. Additionally, when both you and your illusion are within 5 feet of a creature that can see the illusion, you have advantage on attack rolls against that creature, given how distracting the illusion is to the target.

Sneak attack states:

Beginning at 1st level, you know how to strike subtly and exploit a foe’s distraction. Once per turn, you can deal an extra 1d6 damage to one creature you hit with an attack [...] if another enemy of the target is within 5 feet of it, that enemy isn’t incapacitated, and you don’t have disadvantage on the attack roll.

It seems pretty clear that the advantage provided to the cleric is exclusive, and that may have an affect on how it interacts with the optional flanking rules (if you're using them), but I'm interested in whether the distraction provided by the illusion is sufficient to be 'subtly exploited' by the rogue's sneak attack - in other words, whether the illusion counts as 'another enemy of the target' for the purposes of this class ability.

This question looks at some of how the illusion works, and this one explores how the inverse is possible (something that is definitely an enemy but not visible to the target can proc Sneak Attack) but it doesn't seem clear to me RAW whether or not this 'perfect illusion' would provide the same support.

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No, since the illusion is not an enemy

The illusion of the Cleric is just that - a magical effect, not a creature.

What is considered an enemy for an Orc's Aggressive trait? outlines how the rules indicate (although do not definitively define) that an enemy must be a creature.

The illusion therefore cannot be an enemy of the target the Rogue is Sneak Attacking.

But check with your DM

Personally I would probably allow this on the basis that it makes thematic sense, doesn't seem like an overpowered interaction, and is a nice way for 2 PCs to work together in combat (I wish mine did!).

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    \$\begingroup\$ If an NPC used Invoke Duplicity you would rule that the illusion is not an enemy and cannot be targeted by spells/abilities that require an enemy? That seems crazy and I don't think it's congruent with Truesight. \$\endgroup\$ – jgn Dec 2 at 2:36
  • \$\begingroup\$ Does your target know the illusion isn't an enemy? It sure looks like an enemy. \$\endgroup\$ – Mark Wells Dec 2 at 16:59
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Illusions are enemies

Sneak Attack states that having an enemy of the target within 5ft is enough to use sneak attack:

You don’t need advantage on the attack roll if another enemy of the target is within 5 feet of it, that enemy isn’t incapacitated, and you don’t have disadvantage on the attack roll.

An illusion creature is an enemy. Especially one created by Invoke Duplicity:

As an action, you create a perfect illusion of yourself

5e does not have flavor text, it has rules. There is no way that you could consider a perfect illusion not to be an enemy. If the rogue's target has Truesight or something similar that can discern illusions, and you could cancel this benefit.

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The rogue's Sneak Attack feature

Beginning at 1st level, you know how to strike subtly and exploit a foe’s distraction. Once per turn, you can deal an extra 1d6 damage to one creature you hit with an attack if you have advantage on the attack roll. The attack must use a finesse or a ranged weapon.

As stated in the description, you just need advantage and Invoke Duplicity states that you have advantage. So you will be able to Sneak Attack with the illusion close by.

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    \$\begingroup\$ The cleric and the rogue are not the same person, so the cleric having advantage does not help the rogue in any way. \$\endgroup\$ – Theik Nov 26 at 9:50
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