Absolutely not, the damage only extends from one side of the wall and not through the other side of the wall.
Strictly RAW the damage only occurs on one side of the wall, it is never stated that the damage can spread around corners or cross the (internal) boundaries of the wall to support Rubiksmoose's answer.
One side of the wall, selected by you when you cast this spell, deals 5d8 fire damage to each creature that ends its turn within 10 feet of that side or inside the wall. A creature takes the same damage when it enters the wall for the first time on a turn or ends its turn there. The other side of the wall deals no damage.
RAW, several things are happening that could/should negate taking damage or indicate that it does not happen.
You take no damage on the other side of the damage dealing wall side (possibly RAI but "the other side of the wall deals no damage" covers the opposite side of the damage dealing wall side, and indicates that no damage is dealt on the other side that you choose deals no damage).
Even if you could be considered within 10 feet of the damage dealing side of the wall while on the other side (being on the safe side), it is a wall despite whatever it may be made of. The damage would need to go around the wall to hit you, so you could only conceivably be in danger of taking damage at either end of the wall.
It never specifically states that the damage is capable of going around corners, as with many other spells that are capable of doing so specifically state, so it specifically is only able to deal damage directly in front of the damage dealing side.
Only one side of the wall when you cast this spell is capable of dealing damage, and if the wall is stretching from West to East then presumably the caster would choose either North or South to deal damage. The spell never explicitly states that the damage is capable of spreading around corners or through walls, and so the other three sides of the wall would be safe to stand near (even the top and bottom of the wall, so the ground remains unscorched and anything flying immediately overhead would be safe).
Simply put, if you are not on the side of the wall that deals damage, you do not take damage; it does not spread out in a sphere or cone or line or cube or anything centered on the side through to the other side of the wall. It just deals damage 10 feet from the one side of the wall, not through or to the sides.