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A Wizard uses the spell Catapult (EEPC, p. 15-16; XGtE, p. 150) against a Scarecrow (MM, pg. 268).

Catapult flings an object that is not worn or carried toward a scarecrow and hits.

The scarecrow has damage resistance to bludgeoning, piercing, and slashing from nonmagical attacks.

Does Catapult do full damage, or reduced damage in this scenario?

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The catapult does full damage

The catapult deals bludgeoning damage. Scarecrow, in its most recent version, has a resistance towards Bludgeoning, Piercing, and Slashing damage from Nonmagical Attacks (emphasis mine; see the monster's stat block on DnDBeyond). Catapult, however, is not an attack as the damage comes from a failed saving throw and not an attack roll, so the resistance does not apply.

You can find the change to the wording of the resistance in the Global section of the errata document here.

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    \$\begingroup\$ So if you used Bigby's hand to push them off a cliff they would take full damage from the fall? This seems to imply that any time you save vs. damage you would not get to apply your resistance.Is this a loophole that is only detrimental to monsters? \$\endgroup\$ – Guy May 27 at 20:34
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Guy Only when the resistance says it's specifically against attacks. If it's a general damage type resistance without such stipulation, the resistance applies against any source of that type of damage. \$\endgroup\$ – kviiri May 27 at 20:39
  • \$\begingroup\$ Hmm. Well, I don't think I would personally rule this way in my game but the answer looks RAW backed so it shall be accepted! \$\endgroup\$ – Guy May 28 at 16:29
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Guy Out of curiosity, would you personally rule otherwise for any spell dealing piercing/bludgeoning/slashing damage? Or elemental damage? What's your criteria for what's sourced from magic vs not? \$\endgroup\$ – NautArch May 28 at 20:00
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Guy That's a separate damage situation that deserves its own question, and I think already has one. I am pretty sure that the example question had to do with a werewolf falling off of a cliff. Page 17, right hand column, Sage Advice Compendium \$\endgroup\$ – KorvinStarmast May 28 at 20:31

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