There are a lot of great answers here, particularly Quadratic Wizard's and NathanS' (the former of which is the answer I would give as well, had it not already been written). But something which might enhance the elements you're looking for is to simulate the process of your character searching for information, goods, etc.
If you request that the DM help simulate hunting for an item, there are some published guidelines that may help. I'm thinking of something like a variant on finding a buyer for a magic item, but in reverse. I've done similar things in my games, though I don't necessarily recommend doing so (see note below).
So if your character wants to find a component pouch, you roll some stat (it might be survival if looking for an herb in the wild, intelligence if looking for a manufactured good in a city, etc.) against a difficulty set by the rarity of what you're looking for and the size/complexity of the area to be searched. Finding a component pouch in a large, magically active city might be DC8, while finding an unusual material component in a smaller, satellite city might be a DC17.
I don't quite recommend doing this, because while it can enhance the grittiness and reality of the setting, there are some mechanical issues that cut against that effect. Here are some observations I have made when trying to simulate these sorts of activities at my table, using the technique outlined above:
First, time must be a factor. If you have unlimited time to spend searching without any consequences for delay, then the upshot of this approach is that you waste time rolling until you reach a successful one, which you always will (eventually). Time is often poorly represented in D&D, and it's hard to introduce it in this narrow context but not note its lack elsewhere.
This also makes it awkward for uninteresting tasks, like finding a common item to buy-- it's less interesting to dedicate your scarce in-game time to that rather than the actual adventure you could be having.
Second, this approach means that you have to be ready to accept failure or incomplete success. Hunting for a component pouch suggests that they aren't that easy to find (otherwise it really would be as easy as stopping into the first magical supply shop you encounter and finding one there), and as long as you don't have unlimited time you might not find the thing you want. In the case of something like material components, that can be a serious problem: your magic won't be an option for you without them.
No one can decide for you which would be more fun between a game where you search for components and may have to do without magic versus one where you assume components and get to use magic.
Finally, there is not enough throughput to really simulate things to this degree. Your DM does not narrate every single feature which must exist in a setting, choosing instead to focus on major pieces which illustrate the scene and/or are relevant to advancing the story. When your character enters a shop, you don't hear a list of every single item that such a shop would carry-- that would take ages, and knowing about how many colors of sealing wax they sell is not relevant if you are never going to use, encounter, or in any way interact with sealing waxes.
This usually gets abstracted away. When you tell your DM that your character wants to find a component pouch, your character looks around town "off camera" until they encounter a shop that has what you want. You, the player then get a report that your character has found shop X that sells component pouches for Y gold pieces. If you want narration to explicitly express the search, that's the kind of thing to mention to your DM ("you spend hours wandering the city, looking through market stalls and making discreet inquiries. Eventually you come across a decrepit-looking shop with no shingle, but you feel confident that you can find what you need there..."). If you want to play out the search, you would still mention it to the DM, but you are really asking them to invest vastly more effort on content that is specifically not fun or exciting.