When considering spells that require a target, and spells with area affect, which types of spells can also damage vehicles? My assumption for this question is that a vehicle is an object rather than part of the environment, and that the vehicle has a total hit point value. Therefore in a combat between two vehicles, which spells can their passengers use to lower the hit points of the opposing vehicle? I understand that DMs discretion applies (and I'm not asking about that). I am asking, are there specific rules (RAW) or examples which apply in this case?
The rules on making an attack (Player's Handbook, Chapter 9) state that the first step is:
Choose a target. Pick a target within your attack's range: a creature, an object, or a location.
The rules on spell targets (Player's Handbook, Chapter 10) state:
A spell's description tells you whether the spell targets creatures, objects, or a point of origin for an area of effect ...
Spells that require a creature to be a target
Where a spell calls for the target to be a creature, can a vehicle also be a target?
Examples which specify a creature is the target
You create a ghostly, skeletal hand in the space of a creature within range. Make a ranged spell attack against the creature to assail it with the chill of the grave.
Each dart hits a creature of your choice that you can see within range.
Chromatic Orb (Player's Handbook, p. 221):
You hurl a 4-inch-diameter sphere of energy at a creature that you can see within range.
Spells that don't require targeting
These spells may have a clarification that specifies that objects other than the target creatures may be damaged. Would vehicles take full damage from the effects of these spells?
Examples where a target is not specified
A bright streak flashes from your pointing finger to a point you choose within range and then blossoms with a low roar into an explosion of flame.
It ignites flammable objects in the area that aren't being worn or carried.
A sudden loud ringing noise, painfully intense, erupts from a point of your choice within range.
A nonmagical object that isn't being worn or carried also takes the damage if it's in the spell's area.
A stroke of lightning forming a line 100 feet long and 5 feet wide blasts out from you in a direction you choose.
The lightning ignites flammable objects in the area that aren't being worn or carried.