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What happens when a caster casts Polymorph on a creature that is already Polymorphed by a different caster?

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It takes the form of the last polymorph, unless the first was upcast

The rules for combining magical effects are found in the Player's Handbook, page 205. (Note that the last line was introduced by errata.)

The effects of different spells add together while the durations of those spells overlap. The effects of the same spell cast multiple times don't combine, however. Instead, the most potent effect—such as the highest bonus—from those castings applies while their durations overlap. Or the most recent effect applies if the castings are equally potent and their durations overlap.

So, if the two casting are equally potent, the last one applies, meaning the creature takes that form. Because the old spell isn't ended by the new spell, it can be reverted to the form of the first polymorph should the second one end.

However potency isn't defined by the game and so will depend on DM adjudication. The spell being cast at a higher level would probably be interpreted as a more potent version (I would certainly rule so). But as polymorph has no innate benefits from being upcast, you might not see it cast at higher levels very often.

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    \$\begingroup\$ Would this mean that polymorph, when cast later than True Polymorph, would overwrite it (temporarily at least)? \$\endgroup\$ – L0neGamer Aug 25 at 8:54
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    \$\begingroup\$ @L0neGamer True polymorph and polymorph are different spells and so "add together" according to this rule. Your DM would probably say otherwise because combination doesn't make sense. It might be worth asking that a seperate question though if you want a full answer. \$\endgroup\$ – Someone_Evil Aug 25 at 8:57
  • \$\begingroup\$ I kinda expected that they just overwrite each other, I think it would be an ok addendum to your answer above \$\endgroup\$ – L0neGamer Aug 25 at 9:11

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