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The spell Wish states:

You might be able to achieve something beyond the scope of the above examples. State your wish to the DM as precisely as possible. The DM has great latitude in ruling what occurs in such an instance, the greater the wish, the greater the likelihood that something goes wrong. This spell might simply fail, the effect you desire might only be partly achieved, or you might suffer some unforeseen consequence as a result of how you worded the wish.

And:

The stress of casting this spell to produce any effect other than duplicating another spell weakens you. [...] Finally, there is a 33 percent chance that you are unable to cast wish ever again if you suffer this stress.

If Wish fails due to the highlighted clause in the spell, does the caster suffer stress, and thus risk never being able to cast the spell again?

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Yes

The spell casting didn't fail, the wish (PHB, 288) you requested (assuming it isn't a spell duplication) failed to be granted. That's the big difference. You successfully cast wish, but it was did not successfully resolve for you (for whatever reason.)

The spell clearly states (emphasis mine):

The stress of casting this spell to produce any effect other than duplicating another spell weakens you. After enduring that stress, each time you cast a spell until you finish a long rest, you take 1d10 necrotic damage per level of that spell. This damage can't be reduced or prevented in any way. In addition, your Strength drops to 3, if it isn't 3 or lower already, for 2d4 days. For each of those days that you spend resting and doing nothing more than light activity, your remaining recovery time decreases by 2 days. Finally, there is a 33 percent chance that you are unable to cast wish ever again if you suffer this stress.

If you attempt a wish that isn't a spell duplication, then you put yourself at risk because you are now under stress.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ What effect was produced? Or are you saying that no effect needs to be produced, the spellcaster intended an effect other than duplication to be produced when they cast it, and thus the spell was indeed cast in order to produce an non-duplicating effect? If so I think that logic is worth highlighting. \$\endgroup\$ – Vigil Oct 3 at 13:15
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    \$\begingroup\$ @Vigil It doesn't matter that the effect was or wasn't actually produced. It's the casting for that non-spell duplication effect to be produced that matters. \$\endgroup\$ – NautArch Oct 3 at 13:16
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Yes; casting the spell is what creates that effect

The casting of the spell for something other than the replication of another spell (8th level or lower) is what causes those effects.

The stress of casting this spell to produce any effect other than duplicating another spell weakens you. (wish, SRD, p. 192)

The success or failure of the attempt is based on the DM's ruling on the desired effect versus its actual outcome.

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