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There exist several abilities that have the text similar to, this effect lasts while you maintain concentration (as if you were concentrating on a spell). One such example is the Bard College of Glamour: Mantle of Majesty ability.

At 6th level, you gain the ability to cloak yourself in a fey magic that makes others want to serve you. As a bonus action, you cast command, without expending a spell slot, and you take on an appearance of unearthly beauty for 1 minute or until your concentration ends (as if you were concentrating on a spell). During this time, you can cast command as a bonus action on each of your turns, without expending a spell slot.

Another example is the Cleric Trickery Domain: Channel Divinity: Invoke Duplicity ability.

Starting at 2nd level, you can use your Channel Divinity to create an illusory duplicate of yourself.

As an action, you create a perfect illusion of yourself that lasts for 1 minute, or until you lose your concentration (as if you were concentrating on a spell).

While you are concentrating on maintaining such an ability would you also be able to maintain concentration on a spell that requires concentration?

There does not seem to be any RAW that limits this however the limitation around concentrating on a second spell exists which may suggest that the intent is that a character cannot concentrate on 2 effects at the same time unless explicitly stated.

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Unfortunately, No

The introduction to Xanathar's Guide to Everything (page 5) reiterates a rule about concentration:

As soon as you start casting a spell or using a special ability that requires concentration, your concentration on another effect ends instantly.

Therefore, any spells/abilities that require concentration to maintain end when another spell or ability that also requires concentration is cast.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ You say this "reiterates" a rule about concentration. Can the same rule be found in the Player's Handbook or Dungeon Master's Guide? \$\endgroup\$ – gto Feb 12 at 4:20
  • \$\begingroup\$ @gto The rule for concentration that is being reiterated is found under spell duration in the PHB: "The following factors can break concentration: Casting another spell that requires concentration..." \$\endgroup\$ – Rykara Feb 13 at 6:38
  • \$\begingroup\$ Got it -- PHB pg. 203 -- but that's only explicitly applicable to spells. It makes no mention about any other "special abilities" causing concentration on a spell to be lost. \$\endgroup\$ – gto Feb 14 at 7:09
  • \$\begingroup\$ @gto It says if you cast a spell that requires concentration you lose concentration on (whatever) you're concentrating on previously. That would include special abilities. Such abilities are unusual: most of the time, only spells involve concentration so the rules focus on that generality. The bit from Xanathar's is not an optional rule (it's under 10 Rules to Remember [from the PHB/DMG]), as pretty much everything else in the book is, which means it's reiterating (and clarifying) the existing rule from the PHB. \$\endgroup\$ – Rykara Feb 14 at 22:32
  • \$\begingroup\$ It says "You lose concentration on a spell if you cast another spell that requires concentration." No mention of non-spells. Don't get me wrong; I do believe your interpretation is RAI, but I don't think it's RAW with the PHB alone. It only becomes RAW after adding XGtE (or TCoE, which has the same sentence as XGtE). \$\endgroup\$ – gto Feb 14 at 22:57

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