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I play a halfling who has the Bountiful Luck racial feat (XGtE, p. 73-74):

When an ally you can see within 30 feet of you rolls a 1 on the d20 for an attack roll, an ability check, or a saving throw, you can use your reaction to let the ally reroll the die. The ally must use the new roll.

When you use this ability, you can't use your Lucky racial trait before the end of your next turn.

It is clear that giving a teamate a reroll means I can't reroll my own 1's on my next turn. But am I allowed to use the Bountiful Luck feat again for other allies before the end of my next turn?

Consider this chain of events:

  1. Ally A rolls 1 on an attack on his turn. Bountiful luck grants a reroll.
  2. Ally A rolls 1 on a bonus action check on the same turn.
  3. Ally B rolls 1 on a save.
  4. I roll 1 on a save on an enemy turn.
  5. Ally C rolls 1 on a death save.
  6. I roll 1 on an attack roll on my own turn.

From my understanding: The first ally definitely gets a reroll, and my own rolls definitely do not(4 and 6).

But numbers 2,3 and 5 are a little less clear to me. While the rule doesn't specifically disallow using it multiple times in a round, the limitation on the racial trait makes it feel like the intent is essentially "1 reroll per round".

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You can only use Bountiful Luck once before the start of your next turn.

As you yourself have quoted (emphasis mine):

When an ally you can see within 30 feet of you rolls a 1 on the d20 for an attack roll, an ability check, or a saving throw, you can use your reaction to let the ally reroll the die.

And, as the Basic Rules of the game describe:

When you take a reaction, you can't take another one until the start of your next turn.

So, because you have to use your reaction you can't use Bountiful Luck again until the start of your next turn.

The description of the feat doesn't say anything about you needing to currently have the benefit from your lucky feature to use it. So if you have a reaction available, you can use it regardless of whether or not you have lost the benefit of your lucky trait due to a previous use.

You also can't use Bountiful Luck on yourself

This is discussed more in the question: Is a creature counted as its own ally?

Summarizing the answer here: the usage of the term "ally" throughout the game's rules, as well as its natural language definition, highly suggest that an ally is another friendly creature that isn't yourself. So, since you are not your own ally, you can never ever use Bountiful Luck on yourself. Even if the Lucky trait is active and you have your reaction.

Analyzing your chain of events:

  1. Bountiful Luck grants reroll by using your reaction
  2. You don't have a reaction left so you can't use Bountiful Luck again
  3. You still don't have your reaction left, so you can't use Bountiful Luck
  4. You can't ever use Bountiful Luck on yourself, and you are locked out of your Lucky trait because of the last time you used this feat. However, you can use Bountiful Luck on an ally at any point now because you have your reaction back. And the feat doesn't specify you need to have the Lucky trait active to use it.
  5. You can use Bountiful Luck since you have a reaction (assuming Ally C's turn comes after yours and you didn't use it on your own turn)
  6. You can't use Bountiful Luck on yourself ever. If you used Bountiful Luck since the last turn, you are out of luck (pun intended) since your Lucky trait is inactive for this turn.
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  • \$\begingroup\$ I wouldn't ever want to use bountiful luck on myself, since my lucky trait is better, since it doesn't have the same lockout mechanism. So effectively, I can use my lucky racial to reroll whatever I need, but once I grant it to an ally nobody gets any rerolls from me until the end of my next turn. \$\endgroup\$ – captncraig Oct 5 '19 at 2:18
  • \$\begingroup\$ Although maybe you were hinting at a scenario where I roll a 1 on my own save, use my racial, then roll 1 again and try to argue bountiful luck can give me yet another reroll. Yeah, that would be stretching it too far, even for me. \$\endgroup\$ – captncraig Oct 5 '19 at 2:21
  • \$\begingroup\$ @captncraig I was just being thorough. I agree that Lucky is better for you, so using the feat on yourself would be a poor choice, even if you could. Another point though is that strictly by the wording of the feat, nobody gets rerolls from you until the start of your next turn. As I noted, you get your reaction back at the start of your turn and nowhere in the strict text of the feat does it say you need to currently be benefiting from the Lucky trait to use this feat. \$\endgroup\$ – Adam Oct 5 '19 at 2:22
  • \$\begingroup\$ Oh, that's an interesting one. So if I let an ally reroll a save, then on my turn trigger something that makes them save again, they could reroll again in the middle of my turn, and I can use luck in the round after my turn ends, even though I have no reactions. Crazy. \$\endgroup\$ – captncraig Oct 5 '19 at 2:26
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    \$\begingroup\$ @captncraig So, I can't totally agree with you because the definition of a "round" sort of depends on where you start tracking initiative. But what would happen is, yes you could let them reroll during your turn. But then you don't have the Lucky trait until the end of your next turn after the current one. Because the feat explicitly says "When you use this ability, you can't use your Lucky racial trait before the end of your next turn" and "your next turn" is the one you take one round from your current turn. Does that make sense? \$\endgroup\$ – Adam Oct 5 '19 at 2:32
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Only one action (an Ally's) can benefit from your Bountiful Luck per Round

... you can use your reaction to let the ally reroll the die.

When you use this ability, you can't use your Lucky racial trait before the end of your next turn.

Your Ally re-rolling their dice is you using your Lucky racial trait.

Once you have used your Bountiful Luck in a Round, no matter who benefits from it, you may not use it again until after the end of your next turn.

Additionally, it uses your Reaction. Even if you were able to use your Lucky trait again, you would have to find an additional Reaction to 'fuel' it.

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    \$\begingroup\$ The reaction bit is the most convincing part to me. That explicitly stops me from using it until the start of my next turn. And the text stops me from using luck for myself on my turn. Thanks. \$\endgroup\$ – captncraig Oct 5 '19 at 2:00
  • \$\begingroup\$ Both parts apply. 1) You need a reaction. 2) YOU must use YOUR Trait for anyone to get a re-roll. YOU can only do this ONCE until the end of your Turn. \$\endgroup\$ – Black Spike Oct 5 '19 at 2:05
  • \$\begingroup\$ Nothing says an ally re-rolling is a use of the Lucky trait. \$\endgroup\$ – aschepler Oct 5 '19 at 16:42

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