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I came across the Powerful Build racial feature, which states:

You count as one size larger when determining your carrying capacity and the weight you can push, drag, or lift.

I couldn't find any rules on how a creature's carrying capacity scales with its size. Can anyone clarify this?

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    \$\begingroup\$ Welcome to RPG.SE! Take the tour if you haven't already, and check out the help center for more guidance. \$\endgroup\$ – V2Blast Oct 16 at 4:55
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In the vast majority of cases, you double their lift/push/drag/carrying capacity

Size and Strength. Larger creatures can bear more weight, whereas Tiny creatures can carry less. For each size category above Medium, double the creature's carrying capacity and the amount it can push, drag, or lift. For a Tiny creature, halve these weights.

Lifting and Carrying, Player's Handbook, pg. 176

There's a few generalizations we can make based on this rule:

  • There's no difference between Small and Medium creatures; they both use a multiplier of 1x.
  • There are no [Officially Published] Racial Options in 5e that are 'Small'-sized, and have this feature

Therefore, we can generalize and say that any time a creature has this feature, you simply take their normal carrying/lifting/dragging/pushing capacity as determined for their size, and double it.

In the rare scenario where this feature gets applied to a 'Small'-sized creature, it would have no effect.

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    \$\begingroup\$ If we're going into detail, it may be worth noting that if the feature is applied to a Gargantuan creature you either count as one size category larger than that, even though that size category does not ordinarily exist (the RAW option) or you can't benefit from it because there's no larger category. \$\endgroup\$ – Please stop being evil Oct 15 at 23:07
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It's twice as much

Size and Strength. Larger creatures can bear more weight, whereas Tiny creatures can carry less. For each size category above Medium, double the creature's carrying capacity and the amount it can push, drag, or lift. For a Tiny creature, halve these weights.

(source)

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