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Does a character being a race that is described as a sub-variant of another - for example, Svirfneblin to Gnome - qualify said character to take feats that are restricted to members of the super-race (for want of a better term) - for example, Earth Child Style - due to sharing a sub-type?

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    \$\begingroup\$ Although it's for 3.5 you may nonetheless be interested in this question. \$\endgroup\$ Nov 13, 2019 at 19:13

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Yes.

According to the Advanced Race Guide:

Every humanoid creature also has a subtype to match its race, such as human, giant, goblinoid, reptilian, or tengu. If you are making a new humanoid race, you should either find an existing subtype to match or make a new one by using the name of the race as the subtype. If you are making a halfbreed race, it should have the racial type of both parent races. For example, a half-elf has both the human and the elf subtypes. Subtypes are often important to qualify for other racial abilities and feats. If a humanoid has a racial subtype, it is considered a member of that race in the case of race prerequisites.

This passage from the race creation rules should settle matters conclusively.

As for your example, since Svirfneblin are Humanoids with the "Gnome" subtype, they qualify for all character options that have "Gnome" as a prerequisite just like a "normal" Gnome.

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No.

You only qualify as a member of that "super-race" for purposes of taking race-based options if you have an ability that says so (like a half-elf's Elf Blood trait or the Racial Heritage feat).

Note that you do still qualify as a member of that "super-race" for effects that care about type and subtype, like a ranger's Favored Enemy.

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    \$\begingroup\$ Does there exist rules text that explicitly states that prerequisites such as ”be a Gnome” are satisfied by having the gnome subtype? \$\endgroup\$ Nov 13, 2019 at 19:32
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    \$\begingroup\$ @royalmurder Good question! In fact, turns out I've been playing it wrong for quite some time-- have edited my answer accordingly. \$\endgroup\$ Nov 13, 2019 at 21:46

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