This can happen in the Feywild
The DMG has a section on planes, and the Feywild in particular has the possibility of a Time Warp (DMG p. 50) occurring (emphasis mine):
While time seems to pass normally in the Feywild, characters might spend a day there and realize, upon leaving the plane, that less or more time has elapsed everywhere else in the multiverse.
Whenever a creature or group of creatures leaves the Feywild after spending at least 1 day on that plane, you can choose a time change that works best for your campaign, if any, or roll on the Feywild Time Warp table.
Besides suggesting you simply choose the exact value of the time warp, the included table of possibilities for how the time is warped has an option for "Days become years" which seems to be in line with what you want.