Sometimes, but usually not.
More dots in Strength is pretty straightforward in most ways: the character can lift more, punch harder, jump higher, and so on. This is true for most of the physical Attributes, but not as much for the social or mental ones.
Intelligence is already a kind of vague term, in that it covers a lot of possible activities and capacities. So saying that a character with five dots in Intelligence is as smart as a human being can be is already not too clear in exactly what capabilities are being described. Adding more dots only stretches this vagueness further.
Attributes in particular are not really meant to be described in this way. That the physical ones get more precise descriptions is an exception, not the rule.
It's also worth remembering that most tasks are not straight Attribute rolls, but have associated Skills. I wouldn't say that a character with Intelligence at 6 dots would necessarily be any good at codebreaking. They have the raw intellectual power to do it, but if they don't know anything about encryption or related areas then their intelligence may not be something they can apply to a task very well. Most specific applications of an Attribute are modified by a Skill, so description by example will often not describe the Attribute alone very well.
Finally, remember just how exceptional going beyond five dots is. A character with five dots in an Attribute has reached the pinnacle of human potential. It's supposed to be a bit mysterious and unclear what capacities exist beyond that. A creature with Intelligence at seven dots has a mind that operates in ways potentially unfathomable to a human, much like a dog (however smart) probably can't appreciate the depth of ability and comprehension available to a human.
If you want analogous examples, I suggest designing different challenges that would call for dice rolls and then set the difficulty and success thresholds as reasonably as you can. Try to come up with some things that are possible, but beyond the ability of even a highly capable person (a 5-dot guideline). Obviously, there is some subjectivity in how you do that.
Some of these tasks should be essentially impossible if rolling Attributes with five dots or less. Adding more dots to the Attribute will make them more possible. I don't know what threshold of success you would want to use to indicate that a creature is "capable" (do they need to succeed 30% of the time? 50%? 90%?), but by defining challenges you can set your own examples of what such powerful creatures can do.
The only reference I'm aware of that deals with playing non-Physical Attribute, non-Discipline stats with more than five dots comes from Gehenna, the final module released for Vampire: the Masquerade's Revised edition.
It contains a few scenarios, and in one of them
The surviving Antediluvians rise and conquer the world in short order, and those Antediluvians then exist as active NPCs in the game. There is a sidebar which describes trying to roleplay characters with extremely high stats (particularly high Intelligence)
I found the citation I was thinking of: Gehenna, page 184. But it's not as germane to this question as I'd thought.
It basically says don't bother trying to express extreme stats in action too precisely, but largely due to contextual factors that keep that from being very worthwhile.
Effects surrounding the end of the world strip away the time Antediluvians have to actually put their brilliance to work, so the plans they deploy are more straightforward than the pinnacle of what Intelligence at 10 dots can do. They also are facing opponents with similar stats, so the incredible advantages tend to cancel each other out. The sidebar is ultimately about why such capable beings' behaviors might not seem to reflect those incredible capabilities.