Can a Chuul cast spells?
We're playing unmodified Pathfinder 1.0.
They can speak multiple languages, have 10 Int, 14 Wisdom, it doesn't seem far-fetched that a colony could have wizards. In fact, could a Chuul be your playable character?
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According to the SRD description
if chuul society exists beyond their frenzied mating season, humanoids have yet to record it. Instead, chuul intellects seem entirely devoted to seeking out the perfect ambush sites to attack other intelligent creatures and decorating their elaborate lairs with trophies from their kills.
Thus, Wizard, or any other class not devoted to ambush, seems unlikely to the level of no one heard about it, ever, in the entire history of the world.
From the game mechanics perspective you can add class levels to a monster and it will even increase its ability scores so that Chuul priest would have 18 wisdom all right. DM who would wish to do that would be responsible for determining creature's role, managing game balance, and explaining why no humanoid ever seen this happen in the past (or lived to tell thay story). This is no small task, but if you want to have a hidden society, or even civilization, or if you want to have an exceptional specimen of that race, you can do it.
As for using it as a player character, this quote from SRD has key information:
Using a monster as a character can be very rewarding, but weighing such a character against others is challenging. Monsters are not designed with the rules for players in mind, and as such can be very unbalancing if not handled carefully.
In monstrous campaign that does not concern itself with the balance, sure, you could do it. In a campaign designed for hunans and elves? Not so easy. 10 monster HD works like 10 levels, so either you are like 11th level character among 1st level party and you outshine all of them in combat, or you are 1st level wizard among 11th level casters in the party, and your spellcasting is mostly useless. And that's only the beginning of issues.