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The spell Sanctuary can ward a creature, with the following caveat:

If the warded creature makes an attack, casts a spell that affects an enemy, or deals damage to another creature, this spell ends.

Does casting Fog Cloud break a Sanctuary spell?

Arguably, it does not, as the spell affects the air around the enemies, not the enemies themselves.

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Fog cloud does not end sanctuary

Sanctuary states:

If the warded creature makes an attack, casts a spell that affects an enemy, or deals damage to another creature, this spell ends.

Fog could states:

You create a 20-foot-radius sphere of fog centered on a point within range. The sphere spreads around corners, and its area is heavily obscured. It lasts for the duration or until a wind of moderate or greater speed (at least 10 miles per hour) disperses it.

At no point does fog cloud affect a creature, it only affects the area which becomes heavily obscured. Hence, fog cloud does not end sanctuary.

A heavily obscured area states:

A heavily obscured area--such as darkness, opaque fog, or dense foliage--blocks vision entirely. A creature effectively suffers from the blinded condition when trying to see something in that area.

However, the blinded condition is not an effect of fog cloud, it's the normal interaction between a creature and the environment.

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Yes, if there are enemies in the area of effect. No, if there aren't

If there is an enemy in the area of effect of the Fog Cloud then it is "a spell that affects an enemy" and Sanctuary ends. If there are no enemies in the area then it isn't and it doesn't.

Note that the phrase uses the present tense - if I cast Fog Cloud affecting no enemies and an enemy moves into it subsequently, that doesn't end the Sanctuary.

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    \$\begingroup\$ -1: "affect" isn't strictly defined as a game rule. As Ruse's answer point out, the spell effect only set an area heavily obscured, it technically doesn't do anything to the creatures in it. If we consider your reading correct, I would argue that even if an enemy is outside of the fog when cast, the spell still affect them : the spell reduce their chance to hit targets inside the fog. Some sources to back up your answer would be nice. \$\endgroup\$ – Nahyn - support Monica Cellio Jan 6 at 8:09

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