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If you cast Polymorph on yourself to turn into a creature with low intelligence, can you/it continue to concentrate and thus remain in the polymorphed state for the duration of the spell? Or would the spell fail almost instantly because the new creature wouldn't be able to concentrate?

The question arose from one of our players wanting to cast Polymorph on himself to turn himself into a Black Pudding (MM p.241). We all looked into the distance pensively.

The spell says it can transform to be a beast, so the "Black Pudding" would be out of the question, but some beasts have an Intelligence of 1, like the Black Pudding, for instance: a Lizard.

This spell transforms a creature that you can see within range into a new form. [...] The transformation lasts for the duration, or until the target drops to 0 hit points or dies. The new form can be any beast whose challenge rating is equal to or less than the target’s (or the target’s level, if it doesn't have a challenge rating). The target’s game statistics, including mental ability scores, are replaced by the statistics o f the chosen beast. It retains its alignment and personality. [...] The creature is limited in the actions it can perform by the nature of its new form, and it can’t speak, cast spells, or take any other action that requires hands or speech.

(PHB p.266)

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Your specific example requires true polymorph, not polymorph because polymorph can only do beasts, and Black Pudding is an ooze. That said...

The rules for Concentration do not have an intelligence requirement

They're part of the section on Spellcasting Duration. The three things that are explicitly listed as breaking concentration are:

Casting another spell that requires concentration. You lose concentration on a spell if you cast another spell that requires concentration. You can't concentrate on two spells at once.

Taking damage. Whenever you take damage while you are concentrating on a spell, you must make a Constitution saving throw to maintain your concentration. The DC equals 10 or half the damage you take, whichever number is higher. If you take damage from multiple sources, such as an arrow and a dragon's breath, you make a separate saving throw for each source of damage.

Being incapacitated or killed. You lose concentration on a spell if you are incapacitated or if you die.

Being a blithering idiot or barely aware of it's own existence are not things that disrupt concentration. There's nothing in the Sage Advice Compendium or the 2018 errata that suggests otherwise.

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