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Let's say I am a level 5 sorcerer and I have already cast shadow blade. And I want to do the following on my next turn:

Quicken green-flame blade for 2d8 (from shadow blade) + 1d8 (GFB dmg) on the main target and 1d8 + spellcasting modifier on the creature next to it.

Then as my action I Twin the GFB again, and I make the first attack on target 1 and second attack on the target next to it, which allows me to do basically double damage from above calculation.

Is this allowed by RAW? If not why?

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Green flame Blade can't be twinned

For a spell to be twinnable it needs to only target one creature. As clarified in the PHB errata:

To be eligible, a spell must be incapable of targeting more than one creature at the spell's current level.

Green flame blade is able to target two creatures; the one you attack and one next two it. (See also developer tweet on the matter who agrees with this.) D&D 5e does not define targeting as well as it maybe should. If you would like to read more words on this and/or argue it, I direct you to the questions What counts as a target for a spell? and ask you not to argue it in my comments.

The rest works

To go through the logic: Green flame blade requires you to attack with a weapon you are holding and shadow blade explicitly creates a weapon (as opposed to say flame blade). There is also no limitation on casting two cantrips per turn, only to casting a spell of 1st level or higher on the same turn as casting a spell of 1st level or higher as a bonus action.

This may be efficient, but it isn't majorly broken though, it's costing you a second level spell (which you have to maintain concentration on) to set up and two sorcery point every turn (to quicken the cantrip).

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    \$\begingroup\$ You could quicken GFB then twin Booming Blade instead. \$\endgroup\$ – Tiggerous Feb 26 at 13:05
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    \$\begingroup\$ I would argue taht GFB can be twinned with the following reasoning: it says in the spell description as part of the attack you must make an attack against 1 creature. the secondary effect if just that, a secondary effect. it happens after the spell has hit 1 target. So spell targeting the second creature is not initual, but the consequence of the original target, says so on the reference given above, the Hakon's explanation \$\endgroup\$ – Borislav Sevcik Feb 26 at 13:31
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    \$\begingroup\$ @BorislavSevcik Assuming I understood your comment correctly, I'm going to reiterate JC on this: I've given you what the rules say, you (or your DM) are allowed to ignore it if you/they wish. \$\endgroup\$ – Someone_Evil Feb 26 at 13:35
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Someone_Evil ah, you are correct with the reasoning, thanks for the answer \$\endgroup\$ – Borislav Sevcik Feb 26 at 13:43

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