The Ritual Repeats (Children of the Night: Vampires, 1996)
In the AD&D Ravenloft product Children of the Night: Vampires (1996), p.36, the vampiric ixitxachitl lord Myxitzajal possesses a cursed pearl of enthrallment which causes anyone within a one mile radius to endlessly repeat a single day. The item's description even specifically mentions the 1993 movie Groundhog Day:
Its powers have been warped by the weird energies of Ravenloft. Now the pearl enthralls all victims (except the owner) within a one-mile radius whose Wisdom is lower than 16. Targets endlessly repeat the activities and emotions of a single day (this effect is similar to the situation in the movie Groundhog Day, though horrific rather than humorous). Victims have a chance to break the entrallment once a day by successfully saving vs. spell at dawn.
This book contains an adventure module called The Ritual Repeats, in which a small fishing village repeats the same day over and over due to the pearl's influence.
If a PC is affected by the pearl due to the party staying longer than one day, the module recommends that this is a good roleplaying opportunity. The player will of course know that the day is repeating, but their character should not, if they're affected.
Lost Village of Janus Gull (Dragon #367, 2008)
The D&D 4e Eberron adventure module Lost Village of Janus Gull, appearing in the digital Dragon #367 (Sept 2008), the village of Janus Gull forms its own demiplane which is caught in a temporal loop. Its inhabitants re-live the same twelve-hour duration repeatedly, and are unaware that they are caught in a loop. On one day per year, the village reappears and can be entered.