Are there any class abilities I'm not aware of that allow a character to negate/disable the Disengage action?
The Sentinel feat
A quick search for the keyword "Disengage" across all published classes returns no class features that allow a player to make an opportunity attack against an opponent that has taken the Disengage action, or otherwise specifically cancel a Disengage.
However, there is the Sentinel feat (PHB, p. 169-170), which grants the following benefit (among a few others):
Creatures provoke opportunity attacks from you even if they take the Disengage action before leaving your reach.
The booming blade cantrip discourages movement, and is unaffected by Disengage.
As well as the Sentinel feat, which allows a character to make opportunity attacks even if the enemy disengaged, the booming blade cantrip published in the Sword Coast Adventurer's Guide (p. 142) performs a similar role.
When you cast booming blade, you make a single melee attack against the target. If you hit, it deals your normal attack damage, and if the target willingly moves before your next turn, it takes an additional die of damage.
This fills a similar, though slightly broader, role: the target is discouraged from taking any movement because they'll take damage if they do. Since this isn't an opportunity attack, the Disengage action doesn't help.
The cantrip is available to Sorcerers, Warlocks and Wizards.
Tunnel Fighter (UA that was never published)
Unearthed Arcana: Light, Dark, Underdark! presented a pair of new fighting styles that were never officially published in a book (though versions of all 3 subclasses from the same UA were later published). These 2 fighting styles would have been available to Fighters, Paladins, and Rangers. One of these fighting styles was Tunnel Fighter:
You excel at defending narrow passages, doorways, and other tight spaces. As a bonus action, you can enter a defensive stance that lasts until the start of your next turn. While in your defensive stance, you can make opportunity attacks without using your reaction, and you can use your reaction to make a melee attack against a creature that moves more than 5 feet while within your reach.
This fighting style wasn't made official, and it's unclear how this feature would react with the Disengage feature, which states that a character's movement doesn't provoke opportunity attacks. But given that Disengage's rules are a general rule and apply only to opportunity attacks, whereas Tunnel Fighter is specific and includes a clause that permits them to make a melee attack (not an opportunity attack) against creatures moving within their reach, this DM would rule that the design intent for Tunnel Fighter is to keep enemies from blitzing past the character and thus a character with Tunnel Fighter can use their Reaction to make a melee attack (not an opportunity attack) even against an enemy who takes the Disengage action.
Class ability: Spellcasting
Classes: Bard, Warlock, Wizard
Spell: True Polymorph
Chosen Form: Ogre Battering Ram
Form Grants: Block the Path
"Also, each enemy that tries to move out of the ogre's reach without teleporting must succeed on a DC 14 Strength saving throw or have its speed reduced to 0 until the start of the ogre's next turn."
I expect there are other monsters that interfere with the Disengage action, but this is the first one that came to mind.