It depends on DM discretion
There is a section in the DMG on Wearing and Wielding Items (page 140) which states that items must we worn in the intended fashion and that:
In most cases, a magic item that's meant to be worn can fit a creature regardless of size or build.
However, this doesn't necessarily extend to foot-intended boots fitting onto hooves. There is in fact some help in the last paragraph of that section (you'd be excused for missing it because it's on the next page):
When a nonhumanoid tries to wear an item, use your discretion as to whether the item functions as intended. A ring placed on a tentacle might work, but a yuan-ti with a snakelike tail instead of legs can't wear boots.
So it comes down to DM discretion whether a centaur's hooves are sufficiently foot-like for any magical boots, slippers, or other footwear.