It depends on DM discretion
There is a section in the DMG on "Wearing and Wielding Items" (page 140), which states that items must we worn in the intended fashion and that:
In most cases, a magic item that's meant to be worn can fit a creature regardless of size or build.
However, this doesn't necessarily extend to boots intended for feet fitting onto hooves. There is, in fact, some help in the last paragraph of that section (you'd be excused for missing it because it's on the next page):
When a nonhumanoid tries to wear an item, use your discretion as to whether the item functions as intended. A ring placed on a tentacle might work, but a yuan-ti with a snakelike tail instead of legs can't wear boots.
So it comes down to DM discretion whether a centaur's hooves are sufficiently foot-like for any magical boots, slippers, or other footwear.