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Green-Flame Blade States:

...you must make a melee attack with a weapon against one creature...

...On a hit, the target suffers the attack's normal effects, and green fire leaps from the target to a different creature of your choice that you can see within 5 feet of it. The second creature takes fire damage equal to your spellcasting ability modifier...

Absorb Elements States:

...the first time you hit with a melee attack on your next turn, the target takes an extra 1d6 damage of the triggering type...

Green-Flame Blade is a single attack that, on a hit, affects 2 targets at the same time. Does the Absorb Elements extra damage affect both the 1st and 2nd targets by RAW?

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Only the first target of Green-Flame Blade takes damage from Absorb Elements

The additional damage from Absorb Elements only applies "the first time you hit with a melee attack". When you cast Green-Flame Blade, you only make a melee attack against one target. The damage to the secondary target does not involve an attack roll. Hence, there is no ambiguity: the target of your melee attack takes the additional damage (if you hit), and the secondary target of Green-Flame Blade does not.

The only situation where the extra damage for Absorb Elements could possibly apply to more than one target would be if a single attack roll applied to multiple targets. And even then, it would be up to the DM's ruling, since the spell's text is unclear in this case. However, I'm fairly certain that no player-accessible features grant such an attack, and I don't know of any monsters that have attacks like this either. If an attack has multiple targets, it will generally either require a separate attack roll for each target, or it will instead require each target to make a saving throw.

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Only the first target is affected

Absorb elements clearly states that the first target of a melee attack from you suffers extra damage. You do not make a melee attack against the secong target of green-flame blade and even if you did it would not be the first attack on that turn.

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There is no interaction

Green-Flame Blade States (emphasis mine):

...you must make a melee attack with a weapon against one creature...

Weapon attacks have one target only, practically always. The damage to the second creature is an effect of GFB and has nothing to do with the weapon attack.

Absorb elements only affects the target of your weapon attack, not "every target involved in any effect that involves a weapon attack."

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    \$\begingroup\$ I would not call effecting the first target "no interaction" \$\endgroup\$ – John Aug 9 at 1:33

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