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The description of a flask of oil says:

You can also pour a flask of oil on the ground to cover a 5-foot-square area, provided that the surface is level.

When playing on a grid, can I pour a flask of oil on any adjacent square or just on the one I am standing on?

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You can pour the oil on adjacent squares.

This is not spelled out very clearly, but your reach is assumed to be 5 feet unless specified otherwise. In the section on melee attacks, it is stated:

Most creatures have a 5-foot reach and can thus attack targets within 5 feet of them when making a melee attack. Certain creatures (typically those larger than Medium) have melee attacks with a greater reach than 5 feet, as noted in their descriptions.

Again, this is in the section on melee attacks, which may not appear to be entirely relevant. But the next paragraph has further guidance, concerning unarmed strikes:

Instead of using a weapon to make a melee weapon attack, you can use an unarmed strike: a punch, kick, head-butt, or similar forceful blow (none of which count as weapons).

So while it nowhere says I can pour my oil on an adjacent square, I can headbutt or punch enemies in adjacent squares, so it is quite natural that I can also pour a flask of oil into an adjacent square.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ @Rykara Although the OP's question is about poured oil, you don't need to invoke Rule 0 for thrown oil. "Oil usually comes in a clay flask that holds 1 pint. As an action, you can splash the oil in this flask onto a creature within 5 feet of you or throw it up to 20 feet, shattering it on impact. Make a ranged Attack against a target creature or object, treating the oil as an Improvised Weapon." The 'object' in this case would be a specified section of floor. \$\endgroup\$
    – Kirt
    Sep 19 '20 at 19:30

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