You have several ways to shut this down.
I'll walk through them one at a time. I hope they'll be of some use to you, even though I don't know exactly how your game is structured. But first, let's start with what you shouldn't do:
DON'T just hide something you don't want to happen behind high numbers.
The nature of the randomizer is such that all of its outcomes are possible. If you, as GM, put a high number on something you don't want to happen, and think "oh, that'll happen so rarely it's basically the same as saying no", it's not the same as saying no. You are putting yourself on the hook to make it happen when the dice come up in your player's favor, and it doesn't matter how unlikely that is, it's possible.
DON'T keep playing a game that isn't fun for you.
Ultimately, playing a game where politics feature is likely to hit several raw nerves, because politics is a part of life and impacts everyone. It's also likely you're not the only player to have some hangup related to the subject matter. When creating a game it's important to air these concerns, but it's also important to take the group's temperature at the end of every session. Nobody can predict all the things they won't like in advance.
So how do you take money out of politics?
Way 1: "This isn't that kind of world."
There are two reasons bribes work, right?
It could be that the person being bribed is corrupt, preferring their own security and comfort to living up to their responsibilities: Don Gianpaolo knows that Chief Malone has a soft spot for rare wines, so a case of the good stuff is enough to get him to pull the force out of the warehouse district for the weekend.
Or it could be that the person being bribed is desperate, entrusted with a responsibility but not provided with the security and comfort to carry it out: Don Gianpaolo knows that Chief Malone's wife will die without a very expensive operation, so promising to fund it is enough to get him to pull the force out of the warehouse district for the weekend.
Fate Core has its roots in the genre of pulp action, set in a world with plenty of corrupt and/or desperate people, but it's not wrong to want to play in a world where the people in power aren't corrupt or desperate, and you can create that world by fictional fiat and just say, flat out, that bribes won't work in a quantity enough to affect an election. But that's a very soft denial. Maybe you want something harder.
Way 2: The Politics Game
So, if this is going to be a game about various people doing politics, it's well to keep in mind the prelude to Fate Core's Skills chapter:
Here is a basic list of example skills for you to use in your Fate games along with example stunts tied to each. They’re the ones being used for all the examples in this book, and should give you a good foundation from which to tweak your own lists, adding and subtracting skills as best fits your setting. For more on creating your own skills, see the Extras section.
-- Fate SRD, "Default Skill List"
You're not limited to using all of and/or only the skills Fate Core gives you, especially if your game is focusing on something that isn't the "default" of cinematic action. A game of cinematic action makes very different demands on its characters from a game about political intrigue, after all. And if your game is about political intrigue, it can be useful to restructure your skill tree or your skill selection to accommodate that.
There's a Fate supplement called Tachyon Squadron that focuses specifically on fighter pilots, and one of the ways they restructured their skill list is to give characters, instead of a standard skill 4-level pyramid, a 3-level pyramid for non-fighter pilot skills, and a 4-slant for the fighter pilot skills, such that everybody's got one piloting skill at each of +4/+3/+2/+1. Since everybody's a pilot, this prevents everybody from dedicating too much or too little of their skill selection to something that will be happening in the game all the time.
Even if you just keep the standard list, it might be useful to dedicate some skills to "doing politics" in this manner, and lock everything else into a non-political arena. This isn't to say that your wealthy character can't commission a Statue in My Honor or get a crowd Extravagantly Feasted as a Create an Advantage action outside politics proper, and carry those advantages into the debate.
However, other characters can use their other skills to set up advantages for the debate as well, not necessarily on a greater or lesser level than the ones the wealthy character made with Resources. The wealthy character will also have a political toolkit to use, rather than just treating the election as another problem to throw Resources at.
But maybe your game isn't dedicated to politics, or maybe you'd rather not restrict everyone in this way. You can go even harder.
Way 3: Does "I'm rich" have to be a skill?
Again, the skill list in the Fate Core book isn't binding - you can add and subtract from it as you'd like. Depending on how classical you're going, it's possible that Resources doesn't really make sense as a skill, at least not in its original spirit.
Sure, in a pulp action universe, it makes sense to have a way to measure how well a character can solve problems with money, separate from any concerns on how they actually got that money. That's something fairly common in a pulp setting, a character who's inherited wealth but isn't necessarily generating it actively. It also makes sense for there to be the whole vast mass of humanity, not necessarily affiliated with the heroes or the villains, but all motivated by money. And, lastly, it makes sense for there to be many things available "on the common market", where money is the most significant obstacle to their acquisition.
But do all those assumptions hold true as you turn back the clock? You could argue that they don't, really - that there isn't a vast mass of strangers, that supply lines aren't as reliable, and so there aren't really problems independent of the other social skills that a Resources rating would solve. So you might just eliminate Resources entirely as an independent skill.
This doesn't mean that there's no such thing as "being rich" - character aspects are still true, and certainly somebody who's trying to use money to get power has at least one aspect about how they made and/or have that money. So your rich character could still commission a Statue in My Honor where other characters might not be able to - but the difficult part of that would be finding a someone or someones to make that statue in a timely fashion in the first place, not just having the big stack of cash in the first place.