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Assuming that Witch bolt is cast at 1st level and hits the target, would the target take 2d12 damage in that turn, because its the beginning of the spell's duration and:

on each of your turns for the duration, you can use your action to deal 1d12 lightning damage to the target automatically.

Or does it take effect the turn after you cast it?

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    \$\begingroup\$ Welcome to RPG.SE! Take the tour if you haven't already, and check out the help center for more guidance. \$\endgroup\$ – V2Blast Dec 6 '20 at 9:10
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Only 1d12 the first turn.

As you quoted:

on each of your turns for the duration, you can use your action to deal 1d12 lightning damage to the target automatically.

The trouble is, on the turn you cast it, you used your action to cast it, so unless you have another action, such as from the Fighter’s action surge ability, you can’t use the extra damage until next turn.

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    \$\begingroup\$ In addition, anyone who can cast the spell and has access to the Quickened Spell Metamagic and one Sorcery Point to spend could cast Witch Bolt as a Bonus Action, . If The Caster decided have the Bonus Action casting occur before their Action on the casting Turn, the the caster must use that casting turn Action to deal the extra d12 Lightning if they want to keep the spell from ending. \$\endgroup\$ – notovny Dec 6 '20 at 10:48

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