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Small Fire Elementals (amongst others) have an attack called Burn:

A fire elemental deals fire damage in addition to damage dealt on a successful hit in melee. Those affected by the burn ability must also succeed on a Reflex save or catch fire, taking the listed damage for an additional 1d4 rounds at the start of its turn. A burning creature can attempt a new save as a full-round action. Dropping and rolling on the ground grants a +4 bonus on this save. Creatures that hit a burning creature with natural weapons or unarmed attacks take fire damage as though hit by the burning creature and must make a Reflex save to avoid catching on fire. See Burn for more details.

Since creatures that hit a burning creature take fire damage and must make a save, does this mean that if an elemental successfully Burns an elf, and then that elf is punched by a goblin, the goblin takes fire damage and might be set on fire?

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Our conclusion was no.

The rules are unclear -- "burning creature" is used to denote both the elemental and the person they burn.

It's clear from context that "A burning creature can attempt a new save (to not be on fire)" must refer to the target.

The phrase "as though hit by the burning creature" doesn't make sense as the target, though: why should how much damage the elf does when attacking matter to the goblin? It doesn't change the temperature of the flames. So the first "burning creature" in that sentence probably refers to the elemental, too.

Additionally, whilst 'catching on fire' is hyperlinked, this is probably overzealous and doesn't mean that those rules apply here -- there are already rules in this paragraph for what happens when you "catch fire".

I'd interpret it as:

Burn: A fire elemental deals the listed fire damage in addition to damage dealt on a successful hit in melee. Creatures that hit the fire elemental with natural weapons or unarmed attacks are dealt the listed fire damage. Creatures affected by the burn ability must also succeed on a Reflex save or be on fire, taking the listed damage for an additional 1d4 rounds at the start of its turn. A creature that is on fire can attempt a new save as a full-round action. Dropping and rolling on the ground grants a +4 bonus on this save. [text about natural weapons moved]

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    \$\begingroup\$ The extraordinary ability burn in Bestiary 1 and 4–6 is different from the burn in Bestiary 2 and 3. The latter are clearer and preclude the possibility of victims spreading the fire. I don't know what to do with this information, but you're welcome to it. (I suspect—but totally can't prove—that burn was supposed to've been updated by Bestiary 2 (hence kept through 3) only to have the new layout guy use the Bestiary 1 as the template for Bestiary 4–6, rolling back what should've been an update.) \$\endgroup\$ Dec 19 '20 at 15:53
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    \$\begingroup\$ Keep in mind that most hyperlinks on d20pfsrd are generated automatically. This has led to every instance of "fly" pointing to the spell even when it should have pointed to the skill (or was it viceversa?), and to several other occurences of English words like "bane" being mistaken for names of spells, feats or other features and hyperlinked. Thus, 'catching on fire' being hyperlinked means very little. \$\endgroup\$
    – Zachiel
    Dec 21 '20 at 22:52

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