Globe of Invulnerability is one of those spells that seems to have multiple sticking points as to what works and what doesn't.
Specifically, Globe prevents "any spell of 5th level or lower cast from outside the barrier [from affecting] creatures or objects within it"; Spells "can target creatures and objects within the barrier, but [they have] no effect on them" and "the area within the barrier is excluded from the areas affected by such spells."
Catapult hurls an object in a direction, dealing damage if it would impact a solid surface. It does not target creatures (ruling out the second clause), and the spell description does not have an associated area (the third clause).
Would a creature inside a Globe of Invulnerability take damage from an object thrown by a Catapult spell?