You only have one bonus action on your turn
The additional attack from Martial Arts uses a bonus action (emphasis added):
When you use the Attack action with an unarmed strike or a monk weapon on your turn, you can make one unarmed strike as a bonus action.
Similarly, Patient Defense also uses a bonus action (emphasis added):
You can spend 1 ki point to take the Dodge action as a bonus action on your turn.
And you can only take one bonus action per turn:
You can take only one bonus action on your turn, so you must choose which bonus action to use when you have more than one available.
Dwarven Fortitude does work with Patient Defense
The requirement for the relevant part of the Dwarven Fortitude feat reads (XGtE, p. 47):
Whenever you take the Dodge action in combat, you can spend one Hit Die to heal yourself.
And since Patient Defense does have you take the Dodge action (just as a bonus action), this meets the requirement listed in the feat. You should note that you are spending your Hit Dice to do this healing, eating into the healing resources for your short rest (and have taken a half feat for the privilege), and that you've spent a ki point (though the benefits of the Dodge action is often worth it). This totals one attack and some borrowed healing on one turn (until you get Extra Attack at 5th level, but that's built into the class).