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In D&D 5e, a monk can use Martial Arts to attack twice. They can then spend a ki point to Dodge as a bonus action using the Patient Defense benefit of the Ki feature; if they have the Dwarven Fortitude feat (XGtE, p. 74), they can simultaneously heal themselves by spending a Hit Die.

Can this possibly be right? Can such a monk make 2 attacks and heal in the same turn?

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You only have one bonus action on your turn

The additional attack from Martial Arts uses a bonus action (emphasis added):

When you use the Attack action with an unarmed strike or a monk weapon on your turn, you can make one unarmed strike as a bonus action.

Similarly, Patient Defense also uses a bonus action (emphasis added):

You can spend 1 ki point to take the Dodge action as a bonus action on your turn.

And you can only take one bonus action per turn:

You can take only one bonus action on your turn, so you must choose which bonus action to use when you have more than one available.

Dwarven Fortitude does work with Patient Defense

The requirement for the relevant part of the Dwarven Fortitude feat reads (XGtE, p. 47):

Whenever you take the Dodge action in combat, you can spend one Hit Die to heal yourself.

And since Patient Defense does have you take the Dodge action (just as a bonus action), this meets the requirement listed in the feat. You should note that you are spending your Hit Dice to do this healing, eating into the healing resources for your short rest (and have taken a half feat for the privilege), and that you've spent a ki point (though the benefits of the Dodge action is often worth it). This totals one attack and some borrowed healing on one turn (until you get Extra Attack at 5th level, but that's built into the class).

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  • \$\begingroup\$ if you also take the Durable feat (PHB p.166, hit dice regeneration >= 2*CON) or wear a Periapt of Wound Closure (DMG p. 184, doubles hit dice regeneration), then the loss of short rest healing resources is less severe - although it does, of course, cost you another feat or an attunement slot. I'm not sure if you could also combine the periapt and the feat for even more healing, but since both say "whenever you roll a Hit Die to regain hit points", I believe you can choose what happens first, thus increasing to 2* CON if applicable and subsequently doubling the result, for a minimum of 4* CON. \$\endgroup\$ Jan 4 at 0:38
  • \$\begingroup\$ being a dwarven monk, I'd assume a CON mod of at least +2 or +3 from any at least semi-optimized character (especially with two CON-boosting half feats), meaning you'd get a minimum of 8 or 12, and a maximum of 16 HP (with +4 CON you'd always get this many hit points, and with +5 CON you could even get 20 HP). You might also be able to benefit from a Beacon of Hope spell from your party cleric, but I'm not sure how that'd interact with the feat/item. Of course, these countermeasures don't completely negate the downsides of this approach, I just wanted to show they can be somewhat minimized. \$\endgroup\$ Jan 4 at 0:48
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    \$\begingroup\$ @PixelMaster While I'm sure it's possible to lean into the method, my point at the end there was to address the question's concern that this was too powerful by pointing out the limitations (the costs you have to pay). Methods which make your healing dice more effective will obviously make spending them at more free times better too. \$\endgroup\$
    – Someone_Evil
    Jan 4 at 0:54
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As long as they are 5th level or above, yes. They can make two attacks as an Action, thanks to Extra Attack.

Beginning at 5th level, you can attack twice, instead of once, whenever you take the Attack action on your turn.

They can't at 2nd level (when they first get Ki powers) because both features require a Bonus Action, which they only get one of per round.

When you use the Attack action with an unarmed strike or a monk weapon on your turn, you can make one unarmed strike as a bonus action.

Patient Defense
You can spend 1 ki point to take the Dodge action as a bonus action on your turn.

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