No, because only the vial is enlarged, not its contents
This doesn’t work because the spell would not enlarge the contents of a vessel - only the vessel itself.
First, the spell enlarge/reduce is explicit about what it targets (emphasis mine):
You cause a creature or an object you can see within range to grow larger or smaller for the duration. Choose either a creature or an object that is neither worn nor carried.
The spell treats these targets differently, specifying:
If the target is a creature, everything it is wearing and carrying changes size with it. Any item dropped by an affected creature returns to normal size at once.
Obviously a vial of acid is an object, but on page 246 of the Dungeon Masters Guide we have a more explicit definition of how to interpret an “object”:
For the purpose of these rules, an object is a discrete, inanimate item like a window, door, sword, book, table, chair, or stone, not a building or a vehicle that is composed of many other objects.
While a container of a substance is not specifically mentioned, the intent of the rules is clear: that spells targeting objects work only on a single discrete item. So targeting a vial of acid would enlarge the vial, but not enlarge the acid inside, which is not part of the discrete inanimate glass vial. Note that the acid doesn’t meet the definition of an object itself; spells that target water or other liquids are very explicit about this. A strict DM might even rule based on this definition that the vial’s stopper would not be affected, since that is also a discrete object and not a part of the vial in the way that a page is part of a book or a hinge part of a door.
This interpretation of the rules also prevents enlarge/reduce from freely producing large quantities of any liquid, powder or other substance that can be held in a container. While it would only last for a minute, that would be long enough to make finding certain spell components or special materials trivial. Think about this being used on holy water, alchemist’s fire or silver dust!
A generous interpretation could take from the creature rules - the vial’s contents are enlarged, but only until the vial is shattered or the content is otherwise spilled, at which point it “returns to normal size at once” just like something dropped by an enlarged creature.