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Here's the initial question: Can I transport myself to the Sun and target the Sun as an entity that is within 30 feet of me, and proceed to true polymorph the Sun into not-Sun, causing the world to go haywire?

So that can be broken down into a) Does only 30 feet worth of 'Sun' get turned into 'not-Sun' and b) Can I simply remove the Sun by true polymorphing it into a rose or something

Looking at the details of the 9th level spell, it says nothing about object-to-object transformations. So I'm assuming as it's 9th level it's game-breaking like that. The real issue was the range of the spell

Range: 30 feet

Now, does this mean the 'entity' needs to be inside the 30 feet radius or does only a portion of the entity need to be within the 30 feet radius?

Also if someone knows about the object-to-object restrictions that would be nice to know as well.

(also this question is worded horribly, someone fix that please)

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You have a number of problems, but range isn't one of them

Looking at the details of the spell, it says nothing about object-to-object transformations

That is correct; it is surprisingly difficult to transform one object into another in 5e, but not impossible. You can, however, transform the sun (assuming it is treated as an object, see below) into a creature, such as a rose per your suggestion. This will also have its own complications (see below).

The real issue was the range of the spell [30 feet]

Actually, that is the least of your concerns. The Spellcasting Rules state

The target of a spell must be within the spell's range...Once a spell is cast, its effects aren't limited by its range, unless the spell's description says otherwise.

In your case, this means that so long as any part of the sun is within 30 feet, you can cast polymorph on that part of the sun, and the effects of the polymorph will potentially transform the rest of the sun beyond your 30 foot range.

I say 'potentially' because rather than range, you are up against two other factors. The first is in the description of the polymorph spell itself, which specifies that the target of the spell must be a nonmagical object. If the sun is to be treated as an object, would it be nonmagical? That is a question for your DM, but in many cosmologies the sun is inherently magical. And if it is not magical, that begs the question of how you are surviving there long enough to cast the spell (and not, say, being vaporized by the heat, having air enough to speak the verbal components of the spell, etc.).

If your DM rules that the sun is not magical, the next question is whether it can be considered an object.

For the purpose of these rules, an object is a discrete, inanimate item like a window, door, sword, book, table, chair, or stone, not a building or a vehicle that is composed of many other objects.

Most DMs would rule that something as large and complicated as the sun would not be a single, discrete object, especially if it was non-magical. See also: 'When is an object made of other objects?', and 'How large a thing can True Polymorph produce?'

Finally, suppose you did manage to turn the entire sun into a rose. In the absence of the non-magical sun, the hapless new rose is now presumably in the frozen void of space and will die nearly-instantly. As soon as it dies (reaches 0hp) the polymorph spell will end, restoring it as a non-magical sun-object, as per the spell description.

So, to sum up, among your problems are:

  1. Transporting yourself to the sun
  2. Surviving within 30 feet of the sun long enough to cast the spell
  3. Being able to produce the verbal component of the spell while in space or in the sun.
  4. Getting the DM to rule that the entire sun is a single object
  5. Getting the DM to rule that the sun-object is non-magical

(Not a problem: Affecting the entire object so long as any part of it is within 30 feet)

  1. Having the sun-object-cum-creature survive in the absence of the sun long enough for anyone to notice before it turns back into the sun
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    \$\begingroup\$ If all the above ever held true in any setting, it begs the question of why the same isn't applicable to the planet you were born on, and why a Lich hasn't True Polymorphed it into a Troll, killing literally everyone else yet. \$\endgroup\$
    – Seph Steel
    Jul 13 '21 at 2:38
  • \$\begingroup\$ @SephSteel There is some discussion of that in the comments of this answer. \$\endgroup\$
    – Kirt
    Jul 13 '21 at 18:55
  • \$\begingroup\$ oh no that part was already taken care of anyways. Getting to the sun was never the issue \$\endgroup\$
    – Chosenerd
    Jul 17 '21 at 2:19

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