You get a +2 bonus on the attack roll [that you make at the end of the charge]
This bonus doesn’t persist after you’ve made “the attack” from the end of the charge. Your attacks of opportunity thereafter definitely don’t qualify.
If you have pounce, it is an open question whether or not your full-attack at the end of a charge gets this bonus on all attacks—see this Q&A for details. But attacks of opportunity are definitely out.
Power Attack: Yes
The penalty on attacks and bonus on damage apply until your next turn.
This is pretty straightforward: it explicitly says the penalty and damage apply until your next turn, so they do. You get these effects on your attacks of opportunity.
Leap Attack: Yes
you deal +100% the normal bonus damage from your use of the Power Attack feat
Since your bonus damage from Power Attack persist until your next turn, and this bonus applies to that bonus, this also applies until your next turn. So yes, for the round after using Leap Attack, your attacks of opportunity do increased damage.
Note that the conditions for successfully triggering Leap Attack:
If you cover at least 10 feet of horizontal distance with your jump, and you end your jump in a square from which you threaten your target,
require you to do certain things on your turn. This timing requirement does not apply any restriction to the benefit gained thereafter, however—if you do this thing, then you get the increased Power Attack damage.
Shock Trooper’s heedless charge: Not entirely clear, but probably Yes
Heedless Charge: To use this maneuver, you must charge and make the attack at the end of the charge using your Power Attack feat. The penalty you take on your attack roll must be -5 or worse. In addition to normal charge modifiers (which give you a -2 penalty to AC and a +2 bonus on the attack roll), you can assign any portion of the attack roll penalty from Power Attack to your Armor Class instead, up to a maximum equal to your base attack bonus.
So the thing here is, we are both charging and using Power Attack. The modifications from those effects have different durations, as discussed above. You definitely have to charge in order to be allowed to use this option, but it’s not clear what is being modified here: the charge, or the Power Attack. Considering that the actual option is to move your Power Attack attack penalty to AC, it seems to me much more likely that what we’re modifying here is the Power Attack—and therefore the modification applies as long as Power Attack does, i.e. until your next turn. However, the same sentence also says “In addition to normal charge modifiers,” which could maybe suggest that these are special “charge modifiers” and therefore only apply as long as the charge does. My reading here is that it’s more likely that this is just providing a reminder and confirming that these changes stack with those from a regular charge, but there’s no way to confirm that.
You are correct, or arguably correct, in your analysis. The charge modifiers do not persist, Power Attack and Leap Attack’s modifiers do, and those from heedless charge also persist I think. That corresponds to the −11 AC penalty, +0 attack bonus, +15 damage bonus you list. If heedless charge is limited to just the charge, however, then you are looking at just −2 AC from the charge and −4 from Karmic Strike, so only −6 AC, but also −5 attack.