Demogorgon is of superhuman genius and supreme power.
Demogorgon is explored in D&D 3rd edition sources. The general sense is that one of his two heads is more intelligent than the other, while the other is more feral, with this dual mindset resulting in something resembling insanity. However, he is still the most powerful demon prince, although the demons do not recognize a strict hierarchy beyond who is most powerful at any given moment.
According to the adventure "Prince of Demons", Dungeon Magazine #150 (2007) p.62, Demogorgon is indeed capable of enacting complex long-term plans on a massive scale:
Countless times before, Demogorgon's plans have failed as his personalities, each considering themselves the true architect, unknowingly sabotage the other's work. Without this hidden disadvantage, there's no telling what Demogorgon could have accomplished.
[...] All he needed was a savage tide large enough to drive millions mad. His solution: seed dozens of Material Plane cities with shadow pearls and then trigger them simultaneously through a master pearl kept safe on the shores of the Brine Flats—a primeval temple to the Prince of the Darkened Depths known as Wat Dagon.
He is intelligent enough to speak eloquently, as on p.91:
"Fools! At last you reveal yourselves to my wrath. The audacity of your ridiculous plan is almost enough to convince me to simply destroy you. But here I find you at this, the heart of my savage tide. Know that even as my minions crush the last of your pathetic invasion, your own deaths will be neither quick nor painless. They will be works of wonder, tortures to inspire the ages. You will, at my touch, become legends!"
On p.92, he is depicted as having an Intelligence score of 30 and Charisma of 32, and while these statistics vary between third edition sourcebooks, he is always depicted as having superhumanly high Intelligence and Charisma. He is also described as having an ability called Aura of Demonic Command, which allows him to prevent any demon within 120 feet of him from taking any action he does not permit.
On p.70, the loyalty of Demogorgon's massive number of troops is attested:
The demons fight to the death, so devoted to (and frightened of) Demogorgon that they avoid the standard trick of teleporting away when brought to low hit points. The price of failure is much worse than death on the battlefield to Demogorgon's army.
Demogorgon is also described in Book of Vile Darkness (2001) p.125, and Bastion of Broken Souls (2002), which generally concur with this. They describe how Demogorgon has retained his position as the most powerful demon prince despite facing other genius-level demon lords as his opponents, and he commands huge armies of demons, including countless unique demons and species of demons of his own creation.