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Which Ability do you use for multiclass casters sharing spells?

Ex: Artificer (Int) Sorcerer (Cha) share the Catapult spell

What ability do you use when casting it for the attack roll and save DC?

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You use the spell attack bonus or spell DC from the class that granted the spell. Sure, both Artificer and Sorcerer grant access the the catapult spell, but the player is only going to gain the spell from a single source.

From the Multiclass Spellcasting rules (PHB, pg. 164):

Each spell you know and prepare is associated with one of your classes, and you use the spellcasting ability of that class when you cast the spell.

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    \$\begingroup\$ Technically you could gain the spell from more than one source, then you could choose which class to use when casting the spell. But you would probably not do that, unless you wanted to be able to choose between features from each class to apply to the spell. \$\endgroup\$ Aug 23, 2021 at 16:37
  • \$\begingroup\$ Sure, you could choose to learn the spell as a known spell from Sorcerer and also prepare it as an Artificer (for this example), or you could have two classes that have the same domain spell (Arcana Cleric and Armorer Artificer both automatically gain Magic Missile (which is a poor example, as it doesn't need an attack or save)), which would allow you to choose. \$\endgroup\$ Aug 23, 2021 at 16:42
  • \$\begingroup\$ Also with noting that even a multiclass with synergy in its casting attribute can still have differences. A Warlock/Bard multiclass with a Rod Of The Pact Keeper would still have a different spell attack and spell DC for their Warlock and Bard spells, despite both using Charisma, because the magic item applies only to Warlock spells. \$\endgroup\$ Aug 23, 2021 at 16:46

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